What caused the war of 1812
1812 - The war begins
The Naval War of 1812
by Theodore Roosevelt
Format: Paperback - 238 pages - Publishing company: Kessinger Publishing Co.
Published June 2004
November 19, 1794 Jay's Treaty: The London trade treaty between England and the USA is one-sided in favor of the British and especially at the expense of France. Jay's Treaty later not only leads to a quasi war between the USA and France, but also has long-term consequences for the war of 1812, because the actual conflicts over citizenship and state sovereignty between the two states are not resolved.
November 21, 1806 The French continental blockade imposed by Napoleon's Berlin decree seriously disrupts the growing American overseas trade.
December 31, 1806 The Monroe-Pinkney Treaty between the USA and England is to prevent American seamen from being pressed for the English Navy. But president Thomas Jefferson does not even submit the contract signed at the end of 1806 to the Senate, the contract leaves too many loopholes for the British to continue the practice of pressing.
June 26, 1807 The English liner LEOPARD (50 - Humphreys) arrives a few miles from Cape Henry (American east coast) with the American frigate CHESAPEAKE (38 - Commodore Barron), which refuses a requested inspection. The British board the frigate after a brief firefight. Reason: there are English deserters on board, now in American service. The USA is still "only" leading to diplomatic consequences and an ineffective embargo (Thomas Jefferson's Embargo Act) against England. In 1812 the British controls became a reason for war.
November 11, 1807 England imposes an economic blockade on all European mainland ports and thus particularly affects American overseas trade, which has already been damaged by the French continental blockade (November 21, 1806).
December 18, 1807 The first embargo act against England is passed, improvements follow just a few weeks later, but further versions cannot change the ineffectiveness of the American embargo.
March 1, 1809JeffersonsEmbargo Act will be canceled. In its place comes the one, which is also economically ineffective Non-Intercourse Actwhich only affects French and British ports. A year later, the Non-Intercourse Act through the 2. Macon Bill (After the delegate Nathaniel Macon) replaced.
March 4, 1809 Inauguration of the US President James Madison
September 30, 1809 The Fort Wayne Treaty, of William Henry Harrison Traded out of some Indian tribes, giving white settlers in Ohio and Michigan settlement areas. but also leads to the later war with the Indian Alliance Tecumseh.
May 1, 1810 The so-called 2. Macon Bill to England and France. The nation that would first guarantee unhindered trade for US ships was to become a contracting party, the other nation was to be boycotted. France is the first to strike, so England effectively becomes an opponent. However, the French fail to keep their guarantees, and the bottom line is that the United States is getting on with the Macon Bill just another escalation.
February 4, 1811 The US stops all trade with England.
March 10, 1811 The fake Henry's letters, from President James Madison acquired suggest an English attempt to persuade the American New England states to join the English Canada. The affair exacerbates tensions between nations.
May 11, 1811 England's premier Spencer Perceval is murdered in an assassination attempt, followed as prime minister Lord Liverpool.
May 16, 1811 Accidental firefight with dead and wounded off Cape Henry (east coast USA) between the American frigate PRESIDENT (44 - Commodore John Rodgers) and the English sloop LITTLE BELT (20 - Arthur Batt Bingham)
November 7, 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe between US forces and militia under William Henry Harrison and the Indian Federation under Tecumsehs Brothers Tenskwatawa. Allegedly the British would Tecumseh supported with weapons.
June 1, 1812 American President Madison recommends that Congress declare war on Great Britain
June 4, 1812 The US House of Representatives adopted the declaration of war with 79:49 votes
June 16, 1812 Foreign minister resigns in England Lord Castlereagh the end of the blockade from 1807 and thus reopening the European ports for American ships - too late.
June 18, 1812 The declaration of war is also adopted in the Senate (with 19:13 votes). President Madison signs the declaration: The US declares war on Britain.
June 23, 1812 The American frigate PRESIDENT (44 - John Rodgers) leads an American squadron in pursuit of the English frigate BELVIDERA (36 - James Byron) and fires the first shot of the war of 1812. The BELVIDERA escapes, but the battle also causes the first deaths of the war.
July 2, 1812 At Amherstburgh, the British dropped all of General's correspondence on the American mail boat CUYAHOGA William Hull in the hands. Welcome reading for General Isaac Brocks Planning.
July 12, 1812 general William Hull begins its foray into Canada.
July 15, 1812 An English squadron under Commodore Philip Vere Broke from the SHANNON (38), consisting of the AFRICA (64), GUERRIERE (38), BELVIDERA (36) and AEOLUS (32), conquers the first American warship, the brig NAUTILUS (14), off Sandy Hook.
July 16, 1812 First skirmish on the Carnard River
July 17, 1812 The British conquer the strategically important Fort Mackinac (Mackinac Island) between Lakes Michigan and Huron
July 17, 1812 The English squadron under Commodore Broke opens a dramatic day-long hunt for the American frigate CONSTITUTON (44 - Isaac Hull). In the end, the American warship escapes and will do more damage to the British than any other frigate.
July 19, 1812 The Americans repel an English attack at Sacketts Harbor, Lake Ontario
August 5, 1812 Strikes in the battle of Brownstown Tecumseh with around 40 men an American militia force of 200 men under Major Thomas Van Horne. The British have almost 50% losses.
August 9, 1812 Total chaos and incompetence during the first real battle, fought at Maguaga (Monguagon, Oakwood) between 600 Americans under Lieutenant-Colonel James Miller and 215 British inc. Tecumsehs 70 men under major Adam Muir. The British troops accidentally shoot each other, the American commander loses his nerve and cannot use the favorable situation to win.
August 13, 1812 The American frigate ESSEX (32 - David Porter) conquers the British sloop ALERT (18 - Thomas Lamb Poulden Laugharne).
August 15, 1812 The massacre in front of Fort Dearborn by Potawatomi warriors of American soldiers, women and children withdrawing from the fort, costs more than 50 deaths and leads to American raids on Miami villages on the Mississinewa River, which in turn join the British in the war .
August 16, 1812 The American troops under General William Hull must surrender in Detroit
August 19, 1812 The American frigate CONSTITUTION (44) under Isaac Hull captured and destroyed the British frigate GUERRIERE (38) under the command of James Dacres off Nova Scotia.
August 20 - September 8, 1812 A truce between the English governor Prevost and general Dearborn gives the Americans time to regroup.
September 12, 1812 American general and future president (1841) William Henry Harrison can do that from Tecumseh Liberate besieged Fort Wayne.
September 21, 1812 Successful American raid on the English supply base Gananoque on the St. Lawrence River.
October 9, 1812 An American flotilla of boats under a lieutenant Jesse D. Elliot conquers the English briggs CALEDONIA and DETROIT off Fort Erie. The Americans have to give up the DETROIT later, but the CALEDONIA still serves the Americans well.
October 13, 1812 Until then, biggest battle (6000 Americans against 1200 British) at Queenston Heights on the banks of the Niagara River. The American attempted landing on the Canadian shore below Stephen van Rensselaer is repulsed. The great British success meant the temporary end of the American campaign in Canada, but the British also lamented the loss of their general with a total of only 14 dead Isaac Brock.
October 18, 1812 The USS WASP (18 - Jacob Jones) meets the English FROLIC (18 - Thomas Whinyates). Both shoot each other to wrecks within an hour and although the WASP wins in the end, the Americans can only look forward to hours of victory. The English ship of the line POICTIERS (74 - John Poer Beresford) finds the opponents first and makes both sloops its prey.
October 25, 1812 The American frigate UNITED STATES (44 - Stephen Decatur) conquers the British frigate MACEDONIAN (38 - John Surman Carden) off Madeira. The MACEDONIAN is accepted into the American Navy.
November 1812 The Royal Navy is blocking the ports of South Carolina and Georgia
November 9-10, 1812 The English sloop ROYAL GEORGE (20 - Hugh Earl), the largest ship on Lake Ontario, barely escapes an attack by an American squadron under Commodore Isaac Chauncey and takes refuge in Kingston Harbor. The next day takes hold Chauncey in vain to the port.
November 17, 1812 On the Niagara River, English artillery successfully takes the American headquarters of General's troops Alexander Smyth in Black Rock on the grain. Smyth planned foray into Canada had been betrayed.
November 22, 1812 The British frigate SOUTHAMPTON (32) captures the American VIXEN (12).
November 27, 1812 Unsuccessful American advance towards Montreal by a force under General Dearbornwho initially took British troops at Lacolle Milles de Salaberry can push back, but then accidentally shot at by their own people and is finally stopped by a counterattack and in the end has to retreat.
November 28, 1812 General fails in a chaotic night battle on Frenchman's Creek (Black Rock, Niagara River) Smythes American advance to Canada already in its infancy.
December 26, 1812 The British Royal Navy is now also blocking Chesapeake Bay (Washington, Baltimore) and Delaware Bay (Philadelphia). By the spring of 1814, however, it will exclude the American New England states - opponents of the war - from the blockade.
December 28, 1812 The British liner ELEPHANT (74) under Francis William Austen catches the American privateer SWORDFISH (12).
December 29, 1812 The American frigate CONSTITUTION (44 - William Bainbridge) captured and destroyed the British frigate JAVA (38 - Henry Lambert †) off Bahia.
January 9, 1813 Great Britain is only now formally declaring war on the USA
January 17, 1813 The English frigate NARCISSUS (32 - John Richard Lumley) conquers the American war brig VIPER (12 - J.D. Henly) off Havana
January 22, 1813 In the battle of Frenchtown around 1000 British and Indians defeated General Henry Proctor and Tecumseh the equally strong Kentucky Militia under General Winchester crushing and ending general William Henry Harrisons Campaign against Detroit already in the making. 400 Americans are killed in the battle and the remainder, up to around 30, are taken prisoner. The Indian guards set up among the American prisoners a day later than River Raisin massacre known slaughter by killing 68 wounded men.
February 7, 1813 An American force of 200 under Major Benjamin Forsyth a successful attack on the English base Elisabethtown on the St. Lawrence River succeeds.
February 22, 1813 In the battle of Ogdensburg on the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, a British force of over 500 men under Lieutenant Colonel beats George MacDonnell around 250 American defense attorneys under major Benjamin Forsyth to flee and secure this supply base until the end of the war.
February 24, 1813 The American brig HORNET (18) fights victoriously against the British brig PEACOCK (18) off Demerara (Guyana). The British ship is sunk.
March 1813 Russian mediation offer for peace talks
March 1813 The English sea blockade now extends from the Mississippi Delta to Long Island (New York)
March 26, 1813 The US frigate ESSEX (32) under David Porter, on the hunt for English whaling ships in the Pacific, first of all the Peruvian pirate ship NEREYDA (15) arrives off Coquimbo, Chile.
April 13, 1813 The Americans conquer Spanish West Florida mobilewhich will later be located in the state of Alabama.
April 27, 1813 Battle of York (Toronto): 2,000 American troops under brigadier Zebulon Pike (†), Commodore Isaac Chauncey and general Henry Dearborn land in front of the city and capture, loot and burn the British base owned by Major General Roger Sheaffe at the head of around 700 men is abandoned. Sheaffe had the 28-gun frigate ISAAC BROCK under construction burned beforehand. The nautical equipment captured by the Americans (cannons, sails, timber) will serve as the basis for building their fleet on Lake Erie and thus for their later victory in the sea battle of the same name on the water.
April 27, 1813 Beginning of the English siege of Fort Meigs (Ohio) by around 1900 men under General Henry Proctor and Tecumseh. The American defenders under Major-General William Henry Harrison suffer in a rescue attempt under Colonel William Dudley on May 5, 1813 (Battle of Miami) heavy losses, but Proctor realizes that his artillery cannot defeat the fort and finally orders the withdrawal.
May 5, 1813 Battle of Miami (see above)
May 9, 1813 End of the siege of Fort Meigs, the British withdraw and stop their advance in Ohio. In the end, therefore, the siege will be a first significant strategic victory for the Americans.
May 25, 1813 American troops under Colonel Winfield Scott land on the west bank of Lake Ontario and attack the British Fort George base under the command of Brigadier General John Vincent.
May 27, 1813 The battle of Fort George (2000 Americans against 1700 British) ends with an American victory and the conquest of the fort.
May 27, 1813 The British are giving up Fort Erie after partially destroying them. The advancing Americans only stayed until June 1813.
May 29, 1813 A second English attack on Sacketts Harbor by an English fleet under Captain James Lucas Yeo and a force under Colonel Edward Baynes is under brigadier by the Americans Jacob Brown finally repulsed
June 1, 1813 The British frigate SHANNON (38 - Broke) conquers the U.S. frigate CHESAPEAKE (38 - James Lawrence †) off Boston after a short but bloody battle.
June 3, 1813 The British conquer the American sloops GROWLER (10) and EAGLE (10) on Lake Champlain
June 6, 1813 In the confused night battle of Stoney Creek, 700 British evicted from Fort George defeat under brigadier general John Vincent around 3,400 American pursuers under the command of the generals John Chandler and William Winder.
June 18 to June 25, 1813 English landings and raids by the Royal Navy squadron under Admiral Warren and Rear Admiral Cockburne, cruising in front of the Chesapeake, culminate in the Battle of Craney Island on June 22nd. The Americans under Brigadier General Robert Taylor and commodore Chasin succeeds in repelling the attack on the island. But they cannot avoid the destruction of the Hampton, Virginia, base on June 25th.
June 24, 1813 An American surprise attack on the British outpost of Beaver Dams (near Fort George) under Colonel Charles Boerstler fails catastrophically in a British ambush. The almost 600-strong American expedition is completely wiped out.
July 5, 1813 Attack on Fort Schlosser by a small British force under Colonel Thomas Clark. The British capture equipment and food
July 8, 1813 A small skirmish at Butler's (or Balls) farm remains a tie
July 27, 1813 English troops under general Proctor and Tecumseh attempt in vain a second attack on Fort Meigs.
July 31, 1813 The Americans re-occupy York (Toronto)
August 1, 1813 An attack by English troops on Fort Stephenson, held by 160 men under Major Croghan, fails after the first attempt because general Proctors Indian allies the subtlety of a second frontal attack no longer makes sense. But Proctor's 400 English soldiers are not enough to break the American resistance.
4th August 1813 The American naval fleet under Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, contracted or built since March 1813, the advance into Lake Erie succeeds.
August 14, 1813 The British PELICAN (18) sinks the previously quite successful American pirate ARGUS (18) in the canal.
September 5, 1813 The American ENTERPRISE (16 - William Burrows) conquers the English sloop BOXER (14 - Samuel Blyth) off Portland.
September 10, 1813 Battle of Lake Erie: The Americans under Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry beat the British under Captain in Put-In-Bay Robert Barclay. The British lose Detroit and withdraw to Canada.
September 23, 1813 The American frigate PRESIDENT (44) catches the English HIGHFLYER (5).
September 28, 1813 "Burlington Races": On Lake Ontario, an American fleet encounters Commodore Isaac Chauncey on an English squadron under Captain Yeo, gained the upper hand and pursued the British as far as Burlington Bay
October 5, 1813 The famous Battle of the Thames (Moraviatown): General William Henry Harrisons 3,500 Americans defeat 850 British Proctor and around 1000 allied Shawnee under Tecumseh. The death Tecumsehs means the end of the last great Indian coalition.
October 25, 1813 The undecided battle of Chauteauguay in the Anglo-American war turns into a strategic victory for the British. After 4,000 Americans under Major General Wade Hampton not 1800 Mohawks and French Canadians under Lieutenant Colonel Charles de Salaberry The Americans are withdrawing from Canada
November 3, 1813 The Creek are subject to an American army of 1,000 Dragoons under General John Coffee at Tallushatchee
November 4, 1813 England offers the USA peace negotiations
November 9, 1813 The Creek are defeated a second time at Talladega by the Americans, this time under Andrew Jackson, the later defender of New Orleans
November 11, 1813 In the battle of Chrysler's farm, 800 British under Major stop Joseph Wanton Morrison the advance of around 2500 Americans under Brigadier John Parker Boyd towards Montreal.
December 19, 1813 British troops (600 men) under general George Drummond conquer that of around 350 men under Captain in a surprise attack Nathaniel Leonard defended Fort Niagara near Youngstown. From here they gradually destroy Lewiston, Black Rock and Buffalo as well as Fort Schlosser by the end of the year.
January 22, 1814 In the Creek War, Andrew Jackson's troops repulsed a violent attack on the Creek near Emuckfau
January 24, 1814 Jackson's army strikes the Creek again at the Battle of Enitachopco
February 14, 1814 The American frigate CONSTITUTION (44) captures the English warship PICTOU (16 - Edward Stephens)
February 23, 1814 The British brig sloop EPERVIER (18 - Richard Walter Wales) conquers the American privateer ALFRED (16) off Cape Sable
March 4, 1814 In a battle near Longwoods (Ontario) 180 Americans under Captain Andrew Holmes beat back the British under Captain James Lewis Basden in a bloody way.
March 27, 1814 In the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, General Andrew Jackson beats the Creek decisively
March 28, 1814 The English frigate PHOEBE (36 - captain James Hillyar) and the sloop CHERUB (18 - captain Thomas Tudor Tucker) pose and conquer before Valparaiso the American frigate ESSEX (32 - captain David Porter) and the ESSEX-JUNIOR (22 - lieutenant John Downes ). However, at the end of the battle, the crew of the defeated frigate is obviously completely drunk, as the blatant misses of the American cannons show.
March 30, 1814 Battle of La Colle Milles: An American attack carried out over the Niagara under Colonel James Wilkinson is under major by the British Hancock repulsed with Congreve missiles and counterattacks
April 14, 1814 The USA lifts both the embargo and the non-importation law: exports and imports to France are possible again
April 20, 1814 The English frigate ORPHEUS (36 - Hugh Pigot) conquers the American sloop FROLIC (18 - Joseph Bainbridge) in the Caribbean
April 25, 1814 The Royal Navy is now also imposing a naval blockade on New England, which had previously been excluded
April 29, 1814 The American PEACOCK (18 - Lewis Warrington) conquered the British EPERVIER (18 - Richard Walter Wales) off Florida
May 6, 1814 After intensive bombardment of the frigates PRINCE REGENT and PRINCESS CHARLOTTE as well as 6 sloops and briggs and a bloody assault by English troops, the British under captain James Lucas Yeo conquer the American Fort Oswego (Lake Ontario) under command George Mitchell. Among other things, the schooner USS GROWLER is conquered.
May 11, 1814 American victory over the British at Plattsburgh
May 30, 1814Successful American surprise attack (militia + Oneida Indians) in the battle of Sandy Creek.
June 22, 1814 The (new) British LEANDER (58) catches the American brig RATTLESNAKE (14) off Cape Sable.
June 28, 1814 American sloop WASP (18 - Johnston Blakeley) conquers British sloop REINDEER (18 - William Manners †) 300 miles north of Coruna
July to September 1814 The British occupy a large part of the coast of East Maine and sometimes even stay there until the end of the war
July 3, 1814 American troops under general Jacob Brown and commodore Isaac Chauncey succeeds in conquering Fort Erie
July 5, 1814 American victory at the Battle of Chippawa: A 1700-strong English force under general Phineas Riall When crossing the Chippawa River, a 1,300-strong force under brigadier Winfield Scott repulsed bloody.
July 12, 1814 The English liner MEDWAY (74) captured the U.S. brig SIREN (16) off the west coast of Africa.
July 20, 1814 The British conquer Fort Shelby (Prairie du Chien) on the Mississippi
July 25, 1814 The bloodiest and fiercest battle of wrestling on the Canadian border takes place at Lundy Lane. 2800 men under the English general Gordon Drummond encounter an approximately equally strong American contingent under general Jacob Brown. Both sides lost more than 850 men each, the battle lasted late into the night and ended with the withdrawal of the American troops. Although the battle was a draw, it represents a great strategic success for the British, because once again and for the last time the Americans must withdraw from Canada again
August 1814 The US banks suspend hard money payments, the US government loan collapses.
August 2, 1814 The British begin the siege of Fort Erie
4th August 1814 700 American troops under Colonel George Croghan, from Commodore Arthur Sinclairs small fleet (Briggs LAWRENCE, NIAGARA, CALEDONIA, gunboats TIGRESS, SCORPION) landed on Mackinac Island, the 300 British defenders of Fort Mackinac under Colonel Robert McDouall do not drive them away and are repulsed bloodily. The withdrawing one Sinclair leaves the gunboats behind to blockade.
August 8, 1814 Peace negotiations between the USA and Great Britain begin in Ghent
August 9, 1814 The US Creek War ends with the Treaty of Fort Jackson. The creeks are losing a lot of territory.
August 13, 1814 Commodore Arthur Sinclairs Contingent attacks the supply base for Fort Mackinac in Nottawasaga Bay and destroys both the base and the schooner NANCY anchored there.
August 14, 1814 The British occupy Pensacola
August 15, 1814 Unsuccessful attack on Fort Erie, American defenders hold out.
August 19, 1814 Landing of the British at Benedict (Maryland) or at Patuxent: The British march on Washington
August 24, 1814 British forces under general Robert Ross and Rear Admiral George Cockburn defeat the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg. The way to Washington is clear.
August 25, 1814 The English burn the White House and the Capitol, destroy the brand new American frigate ESSEX, the sloop ARGO and a number of other ships, set fire to warehouses and government buildings in the American capital, inflicting a heavy defeat on the Americans.
August 28, 1814 The British take Alexandria, Virginia
August 28, 1814 Nantucket declares its neutrality
September 1, 1814 The American sloop WASP (18 - Johnston Blakeley) sinks the English sloop AVON (18 - James Arbuthnot) off L'Orient (France)
September 3, 1814 A combined English sea and land attack by the captain Robert Barrie from the DRAGON (74) leads to the destruction of the American frigate ADAMS (26 - Charles Morris) on the Penobscot River near Hampton
September 4, 1814 Four boats under Lieutenant Miller Worsley capture the American gunboat TIGRESS blocking Fort Mackinac in a surprise attack. Two days later he also captured the second gunboat SCORPION with the TIGRESS. The supplies for the fort are secured, the British rule the Huron Sea.
September 4, 1814 Minister of War Armstrong step back. Take its place James Monroe, later US President (1817-1825)
September 11, 1814 Decisive battle in Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain: The American fleet under Commodore Macdonough (USS SARATOGA) defeats the British squadron under captain George Downie (†) devastating. The Americans capture the frigate CONFIANCE (36) and the LINNET (16). Due to the only half-hearted English attack of the land troops under Sir George Prevost was neglected, captain Downie to create a better starting position. The British advance following the naval battle also failed miserably. For the United States, this battle means securing its northern border.
September 12 to September 15, 1814 Another decisive strategic victory of the Americans in the battle for Fort McHenry: Despite British bombardments, including with Congreve missiles, the fort covered by Baltimore can hold out. This strategic success and the above-mentioned victory on Lake Champlain are considered to be the most important milestones for the compromise peace with England.
September 15, 1814 In a combined English sea and land attack on Fort Bowyer (Mobile Point) by a squadron [CHILDERS (18), CARRON (20), SOPHIE (18)] under Henry William Percy of the HERMES (20), the HERMES is sunk and the English attack repulsed.
September 21, 1814 After an American sortie, the British abandon the siege of Fort Erie
September 26, 1814 British boats from the PLANTAGENET (74 - Robert Lloyd), ROTA (38) and CARNATION (18) attack the previously quite successful American captain GENERAL ARMSTRONG (9 - Samuel Chester Reid) in the Portuguese port of Fayal (Azores). After two boarding attempts (34 dead!) That the Americans repelled extremely bloodyly, Captain Reid sank his own ship in the face of the advancing artillery superiority of the English. See this page
October 19, 1814 750 British under Colonel Christopher Myers defend Cook's Mills on Chippawa Creek against 1200 Americans under General Daniel Bissell.
November 7, 1814 Andrew Jackson recaptures Pensacola
November 5, 1814 The Americans are giving up Fort Erie. The last American soldier is leaving Canada.
November 6, 1814 In the battle at Malcolm's Mills (Oakland) 700 cavalrymen overrun under brigadier Duncan McArthur a Canadian militia of around 400 men under Colonel Bostwick . The skirmish is part of a series of skirmishes that McArthur fights along the Thames River.
November 25, 1814The English invasion fleet leaves Jamaica. Destination: New Orleans.
December 14, 1814 The British under captain Lockyer destroy the American gunboat flotilla on Lake Borgne (Mississippi) Thomas Catesby Jones.
December 15, 1814 At the Hartford Convention, a group of federalist politicians and opponents of the war discuss the secession of the American Union
December 23, 1814 The British land at New Orleans.
December 24, 1814 The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812. The US and England return to the pre-war status quo.
December 28, 1814 England ratifies the peace treaty, but the US has not yet confirmed it so that peace can come into force.
January 8, 1815 Battle of New Orleans, in which the American defenders under Andrew Jackson and Lafitte almost annihilate an attacking English army under Pakenham - incidentally, while the peace is already in place, which is of course not yet known in New Orleans.
January 15, 1815 A British squadron, MAJESTIC (56), ENDYMION (44), TENEDOS (38) and POMONE (38), places the American frigate PRESIDENT (44) in front of New York and takes it as a pinch.
February 12, 1815 A 1000-strong English troop under General landed in Mobile-Bay (Alabama) John Lambert builds a strong artillery position against Fort Bowyer, forces the 370 Americans behind the stockade to capitulate and thus exercises control over the entire bay - until February 13, 1815, when the news of peace by sea came.
February 16, 1815 The American Senate is in favor of ratifying the Ghent peace treaty
February 17, 1815 With the ratification of the Ghent Peace Agreement by the President Madison the treaty finally comes into force. Now there is peace.
February 20, 1815 The USS CONSTITUTION (44) under Charles Stewart conquered the small English frigate CYANE (24 - Gordon Thomas Falcon) and the LEVANT (20 - George Douglas) off Madeira - with peace already reigning between the USA and Great Britain. Just a few hours later, the LEVANT is recaptured by the (new) LEANDER (58 - Collier).
March 23, 1815 US brig HORNET (18) defeated British brig PENGUIN (18) under James Dickinson in front of the island of Tristan da Cunha - also when peace is already in place.
June 30, 1815 U.S.S. PEACOCK (18) conquers the British HMS. NAUTILUS (14) in the Sunda Passage - there has been peace since February 1815!
Copyright © 2008 by T. Coladores & Pellewserbe
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