Why was Christianity created by the Jews

Sura 5 verse 18... because Jews and Christians call themselves "sons of God"

"The Jews and the Christians say:
'We are God's sons and his beloved.'
Say: 'Then why does he punish you for your sins?
No! You are human (like all other human beings) that he created. '

The verse complains that Jews and Christians call themselves "sons of God". In other places in the Koran, for example in sura 9 verse 30, it is also complained that Christians also refer to Jesus as the "Son of God". The Christian claim that Jesus is the sons of God is hardly surprising. It corresponds to the teaching of the late antique churches. But what about the sonship of Christians and Jews as a group?

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As elsewhere, the Koran takes up teachings from the Jewish and Christian traditions in order to use them for its polemics against religious opponents. Indeed, the rabbis claimed that the Israelites were "loved" by God because they were called "sons of God". The testimony of the rabbis is based on the Bible. The Israelites are explicitly addressed as "sons of God" in the 5th book of Moses (14: 1).

Dr. Holger Zellentin (priv.) As the verse quoted at the beginning shows, both the rabbis' statements and their choice of words are clearly recorded in the Arabic Koran. On the one hand, the Koran reflects the teaching of the sons of God recorded in rabbinical literature. On the other hand, he picks up exactly the Semitic roots of the words for "son" (bn) and "love (ḥbb)" used there. The Quran's recourse to the statement and choice of words is so adequate that the audience familiar with the rabbinical tradition hears those below This means that the audience must at least confirm the correctness of the Koranic basic assumptions of this tradition, even if of course they do not agree with the following polemic.

The Christians of late antiquity also refer to themselves as the beloved sons of God. This is shown, for example, by the Syrian municipal code of Didaskalia, which was also in circulation in the region in Aramaic at the time of the Koran. It defines the Christian community as part of the people of Israel and explicitly addresses its members as "sons of God." The Didaskalia also addresses its Christian audience as "beloved sons". As in rabbinical literature, the roots of the words for son (bn) and "love" (ḥbb) found in the Koran are also used in Didaskalia.

The Koran thus emphasizes the broad overlap of the Jewish and Christian doctrines with sufficient precision in terms of content and lexicality. In the accusation against Jews and Christians of claiming divine sonship, their own traditions are considered. In addition, they are brought together in such a way that their mixing creates a message of polemical difference between Islam and the teachings of both groups.

The Koran then asks the question of what the claimed special position as "sons of God" is supposed to be worth? After all, they don't protect them from punishment. The Christians referred to the destruction of the temple as evidence that God considered the special position of the Jews to be obsolete. The Christians, on the other hand, were reproached that God had neither saved Christ on the cross nor the martyrs in the arenas of the Romans from death.

It can no longer be reconstructed whether the Koranic community was aware of precisely these allegations. In any case, Jesus' death on the cross is denied in the Koran. One thing is clear, however: the Koran cites the suffering of Jews and Christians and their creatureliness as evidence that their claim to be "sons of God" is false. The text thus mixes two polemics that go back deep into late antiquity in order to play off the assertions of the Jews and those of the Christians against one another