Has IIT Kanpur lost its charm

Israelitisches Wochenblatt

for Switzerland
January 2, 1931
'riA. Stampfenbachttr. 59 "
Tttspkcn 27.822
Well-established Swiss Israelite family sheet
Special amount
for the 30th anniversary
6esMten unr with care and attention
9) od) etfabriH
Known for QUALITY

with deposit boxes: Aussersihl, Bellevueplatz, Lwenplatz, Oberstrass
Founded in 1872
Share capital and reserves Fr. 212,000,000
We recommend ourselves for the procurement of

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number 1
for Switzerland 2.januan95i
Well-established Swiss Israelite family sheet
ZSrich, Stampfenbachsfr. 59
Telephone 27.822
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P.O. Box Fraumnster 10330, Telephone 47.285

number 1
Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
31st jahtgagg
Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Isr. RelifionsgeselltGbll Zrich
Friday evening 4.35 a.m. 8.15
8 19 nmo 3.30
9 20 Off 8- 5-35 week. Vorm. 7.15
Afternoon 4.20
na exit: Baden, Winterthur, Endingen, Lengnau 5.32
Basel, Bern, Biel, Liestal, Friborg 5.36, Chaux-de-Fonds 5.40
Lucerne 5.34, St. Gallen 5.28, Geneva, Lausanne, Vevey 5.46
Lugano 5.34, Davos 5.30
Isr. GultiragemeiBde Zrich.
Friday evening 4.45 a.m.
naVorm. 9 * 00.
Afternoon 3.00
(only in the Betal)
Output 5.35 weekday
in the morning 7.15
in the evening 4.45 ,,
The Lindenbiienseiic tiuaflob "
which comes from the same source as the gold glycerine soap, has an extraordinarily refreshing and invigorating effect. During and after use, it fills your living space with a wonderful scent of linden blossom. Give it a try and you will remember this recommendation with joy. Price of the linden blossom soap: Tiliaflor 0.95 Cts., That of the giant linden blossom soap: Tiliaflor Fr. 1.50.
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Open from mid-December. Please register at Hasenfeld, Pension Hadassah
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Zurich 5
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I recommend my well-known branches to my valued customers to buy from
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Around 90 branches in Zurich and the surrounding area

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
The content of the anniversary number is under the symbol of the tribal communities of the Jews in Switzerland.
EVENTS OF THE WEEK: See advertisements for details.
Swimming. Saturday: Lecture by Mr. Lothar Rothschild, Breslau-Basel, at the Jd. Youth bathing.
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Combined with a milk box and a separate compartment for printed matter, only the
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Telephone 90.485
before Hermann Frisch Weinbeppslp. 57, Bro founded in 1899
Telephone Limmat 16.30
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Electrical installations
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200 rooms and lounges with bath or running water. Lounges and conference rooms. First class restaurant Festsle for weddings
Justin Baumgartner, director

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
^ M]! IWMnili: iUIErMIEniMUIIlUIMI! MlliTMUiillUlirillj {il [EMIJUIII]! RillMI1irT11E [T1I [lllIMliri] [lliril2riir ..... llltlllTllltTltrilllllllirillEll .ltlllMtll]
.llllllllllinil lllllllMlIHnillllllllllllllJlllllllllllllllllllllllINlHIIIimillMinilllH
Fr.131.5 '
is recommended for careful execution of your banking transactions
Capital investments ^ asset management
Exchange orders

SUBSCRIPTIONS 1 Through the Exped. drawn for Switzerland CHF 8.60 per quarter, 6.50 per half], 12.60 per year (plus collection charges). Abroad 'per quart. Including postage Fr. 5., discount at the branches. Single copies 40 cts. : Posteheek account VIII6461: Telephon Hott. 78.22 Appears every Friday.
for Switzerland
Founded in 1901 by Kabbi Dr. Littmnnn and Dr. phil. David Slrausa
ANNONCENi the four-split NonpareUlazells or their barely 40 cts. at Pljs.tr-vorschtrlft 60 Ct * .; Advertisements, 1st cover page opposite d. Editorial and BidtsQ of the Faaulien-Anzelgen 80 Cts. Ads take the exped '. in Zurich 0 as well as all advertising offices. Discounts for larger age groups
Editor: Dr.phil.etjur.ERICH MARX-WEINBAUM, with the assistance of Rabbi Dr. LITTMANN
Discounted international subscriptions at our branches for Germany: Ms. Gerson Wolf, Gailingen (Baden); for France: Simon Bloch, Strasbourg, 4, rue du Noyer; for Austria: Jakob Weil, Hohenems (Vorarlberg) Office for North America: Gerhard Hirscbield, Midland Ave. Paramus-Ridgewood (N.J.).
number 1
Zurich, Friday January 2, 1931 (14th part 5691)
31st year
For the 31st year.
On January 4, 1901, the first issue of the first year of the Israelitisches Wochenblatt came out, today the 31st year begins. Many of those who accompanied his first journeys with their pens are no longer there; two editors, Dr. David Strauss and D. Weinbaum have been recalled, they have endured their work and will keep their memories. The newspaper has grown steadily from small beginnings. How modest the first year looks, and today the individual numbers are growing stronger and stronger. How difficult it was for us in the first few years to fill the page, there was so little that moved and interested the Jewish world in our little country. We often called our leading articles sorry articles, we still had the ambition to put an article with a Swiss character at the top of every issue and found so little suitable for it. We had to look for news, there were few family events, few club events; Today the editors hardly know how to avoid the abundance of the relevant material and the readers often find it too much of a good thing. The census can teach us where that came from. It was a little hoof of Jewish souls in Switzerland then, and today it is certainly over 20,000. Our churches have grown and built strong communities. In Switzerland we were like on an isolated island, like an undiscovered America. When I was supposed to come here in 1893, I asked about the Zurich community in my Nordic homeland and in southern Germany and no one knew about it. It wasn't much different when we ran the paper a few years later. We weren't discovered yet. The Alliance
Dr. Erich Marx,
Editor of the ,, Isr. Weekly newspaper for Switzerland (After a painting by Magda Marx-Weinbaum.)
Israelites knew us and had their local committees with us, the Aid Association of German Jews already knew how to find us, by the way we were pretty much unknown people in the Jewish world. How different it has become! Zionism came, even came to us with its first congresses and in its wake a lot of Jewish interest, which filled the first year with discussions and reports and since then has been a constant, lively section of the newspaper. The war came and, with the general interest, also drew the eyes and hearts of the Jewish world to our land of peace. We are known today, we have a good and
well-known names sometimes it becomes too much of our fame for us. We want to say it in all modesty: a good part of the fact that Swiss Jewry is known in the Jewish world today and that it is thought of for the better and in honor, the Isr. Wochenblatt is allowed to write on its account. It always endeavored to exchange all f; ciRiip: cn. Communicating the ideal social interests of Jewish life as a whole has built the bridge that keeps us in constant contact with the entire Jewish world, and has also contributed a great deal to Jewish life in Switzerland from the stimulating stimuli from abroad. But we have never forgotten that we are a Swiss-Jewish organ, and we have always endeavored to preserve this special note and to look after it carefully. And the larger our number and the larger our communities in the country, the more it should and will have to remain the task of the Swiss-Israelite Weekly to remain true to its good old tradition in this regard. Here, too, are the roots of his strength, this is where it is at home

Israelite weekly newspaper for Switzerland
Dams, railway constructions, tunnels, bridges, tunnels, roads, canals, weirs, pile driving and dredging work, rail tracks, factories, silos, halls, churches, hospitals, business houses, apartment buildings, villas conversions, renovations, repairs
Rodless scaffolding according to our own patent. Takeover of turnkey buildings

Isi electric weekly paper for Switzerland
and one's own house is the closest to everyone. The newspaper has thus gained a staff of loyal employees and a circle of loyal readers. There is still something of the good old days, of their simple, confidential, patriarchal nature in the relationship between our readers and their paper. A Friday evening without the Blttle, the familiar and familiar, is hardly conceivable. You open the family news, you read what has been going on in the clubs and the communities, in kill life, you look for the advertisements and everyone searches and finds in them what interests them particularly about what is going on in the jd. World is happening and the worries and sorrow that have fallen upon more unhappy fellow believers. And how sad things have to be reported again and again.
A new decade begins, the fourth of our paper. May it bring us a great deal of good. May it lead the world and the Jewish world forward on the paths of the development of true culture and morals. We want the newspaper to have another strong life for the blessing of Swiss Jewry. At the beginning of the second decade, his first pioneer, Dr. Strauss, with his foreword at the head; David Weinbaum ushered in the third decade. They are both no longer. Honor their memory. Of those who followed the first steps of the paper and prepared the way for it, I was the only one left. So for him and his current editor these lines are a warm accompaniment to a blessed future. L.
Crente ans, c'est days de la force
Par M. le Grand-Rabbin S. B a 1 i z e r, Geneve.
Monsieur le Redacteur en Chef, Je ne dois qu 'ma qualite de Grand-Rabbin de la Communaute Israelite Geneve, Fhonneur de prendre la parole dans ce numero commemoratif de votre fete trentenaire et de retenir pendant quelques instants Fattention de vos lecteurs, au risque mein , de faire evanouir. le charme de leurs propres souvenirs, doux et agreables, qui infailliblement surgiront dans leurs coeurs. Car, ils sont heureusement encore nombreux, ceux qui ont assiste la naissance de votre excellent Hebdomadaire, qui ont ete temoins de sa croissance prestigieuse, et qui prevoient son avenir lointain, sous les couleurs les plus riantes et plein de riches promes-ses. Ainsi, comme toute fete jubilaire, la votre constitue un Souvenir rejouissant du passe, une legitime glorifi-cation du present, et l'esperance reconfortante de Favcnir. En effet, aujourd'hui comme here, et demain
Rabb. Dr. Littmann.
encore, la foi religieuse sera le fondement de votre Journal. Ce sera, par Famour du Judaisme, du Judai'sme avec Fensemble de ses dogmes, de ses pratiques, de ses Souvenirs historiques, de son epopee glorieuse oti mal-heureuse que vous enflammerez nos coeurs Israelitcs. Et fier de ce nom Juif, vous continuerez le reven-diquer en toute circonstance et le defendre contre la calomnie, Foutrage, contre toute entreprise malfai-sante. Aujourd'hui comme hier, et demain encore, les colonnes de votre Journal, realiseront, dans toute leur etendue, les Obligation que son titre lui impose et le culte de la charite, de la fraternite, sous toutes ses formes, sera, entre autres , Fobjet de son activite. En verite, la Fraternite et la Charite Israelites ne s'eten-dent-elles pas toutes les miseres, toutes les infortunes, qu'elles soient privees ou publiques, qu'elles affligent des coreligionnaires ou des concitoyens, ne demandant au malheureux, ni son origine, ni sa croyance, ni sa na-tionalite? Aujourd'hui enfin, comme hier, et encore demain, Israelite weekly sera Fexpression la plus eloquente et la plus pure du Patriotisme de Famour indefectible pour la Confederation Suisse> dont les Lois liberales nous aecordent, Fegal de tous ses enfants, les memes droits et la meme protection. Religion, Charite, Patriotisme ont ete et seront donc tou-jours vos armes pnr mnoa whvan tainm et ainsi, sans cesse, les yeux tournes vers ce triple embleme, FIsrac-litisches weekly paper for Switzerland continera me-riter les benedictions du Ciel et Celles des hommes.
33Ti rbv

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
Everything for household and kitchen
good and inexpensive at

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
For the completed 30th year. By Alfred Braunschweig, Zurich.
In 1667 the first Jewish newspaper appeared in Amsterdam: Newspaper from India in Jewish German language, in Hebrew letters. It was a purely commercial newspaper; she had as
Readership included the Jews who immigrated to Holland, who were not able to speak the Dutch language, and conveyed the news from the colonies. It was followed in 1728, also in Amsterdam, by the weekly Peri eiz chajim, a treasure trove of rabbinical responses. A whole century then passed before actual Jewish newspapers came into existence, until Moses Men-delsohn made an unsuccessful attempt to publish a newspaper that was modern in the sense of the Zeil at that time. In 1771 the Dyhrenfurther Privileged Zeitung appeared in Germany, the first Jewish news paper; the same thing soon came back.
Since that time the newspaper has become a tremendous factor in Jewish life. The number of Jewish newspaper organs that have appeared in the whole world so far is estimated at around 5000. All parties and religious groups, all countries in which Jews live, are represented among them. They deal with science, professional questions, with literature, education, humor, and thus give a true picture of the whole of Jewish life.
It may be interesting to know that there are about 200 different Jewish newspapers published in the United States today, the most common of which is the New York Foreword, with a daily circulation of about 225,000 copies, and that countries like Chile, China, Estonia. Finland. British India, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay have Jewish newspapers. There is no doubt that the press is one of the most powerful cultural factors; you can no longer imagine our cultural life without them.
This applies not only to the Jewish press in the world, but also to our own country. It is therefore not surprising that at an early stage efforts were made to bring Jewish newspapers into being. The first attempt to publish one in Switzerland was made by Markus G.Dreyfus, teacher in Endingen, the campaigner for the emancipation of the Jews in Switzerland, undertook in 1874. He found only about 50 subscribers among the 800 families in the country for his organ, which was first called Hanescher (the eagle), then Israelitische Wochenchronik, and it soon came back up.
The second serious attempt to found a Jewish newspaper in our country was made by D r. Alex. Kisch, then rabbi in Zurich; In the first number of the Isr. Wochenblatt dated January 4, 1901, the publisher who was in office in Prague at the time reported moodily about the difficulties that he or she faced. put in the way of his company, the Neue Israelitische Zeitung:
I did not find a publisher at the time, but I dared to do so at my own risk.
Dr. David Strauss s. A.
despite the fact that I regularly sent out around 800 copies of the sheet. People took it, read it, but did not subscribe because, impractically, I did not issue a warning. Finally, after I had put a small fortune in the paper by January 1, 1880, the company Csar Schmidt took over the printing and publishing of the paper, which, however, had to go into effect when I moved to Prague for lack of a suitable editor.
Another cause of the failure of his company is Dr. Kisch, that despite staying in Switzerland for several years, he was not sufficiently familiar with the local conditions and that he therefore did not always find the right path and the right means.
The third attempt was made in 1895 by H. Ber-1 i ner, with his Jdische Volkszeitung, later Israelitisches Wochenblatt; Central organ (!) For the Israelites in Switzerland. This newspaper also went down again in 1898.
There is no doubt that the time for these attempts was too early. Once the number of Jews in Switzerland was too small to be able to aliment an organ of their own, and the Jewish life of these residents was at an intermediate stage between the encapsulation of the expired time and assimilation. In reality, too, there was little to report of a strong Jewish life of its own at that time.
So it was a risk when, on January 4, 1901, the first issue of the Israelitisches Wochenblatt for Switzerland, published by Rabb. Dr. Littmann and Dr. phil. David Strauss appeared. The editors think that every stand, every professional and religious community has an organ that represents their interests, and they believe that Swiss Jews also need such a platform. Above all, our weekly newspaper wants to stimulate and bring the good ideas of our fellow believers to the public and open them up for discussion; strengthening religious life, preaching forbearance and tolerance (it is the time after the separation of the Zurich community); the sheet should be a community sheet, it should register the events in the clubs and families

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
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Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
and deal with politics and popular life as far as the interests of the Jews so require. The editors also promise editorials on issues of the day, reports on things abroad, and on the phenomena of Jewish science and literature; Finally, a feature section and the construction of a conference room are promised.
With these advances the editors now went into battle, because in view of the circumstances described, their company was one of them. And now we will briefly accompany the newspaper through the first year in order to visualize the time in which it took its first steps. Many of these things moved the generation at that time in the deepest soul; some are just as relevant today as they were then, others are overtaken and forgotten by events.
The following is a flower harvest:
While France has not yet recovered from the heavy struggles of the Dreyfus Trial (it is a year after Rennes), the book appears: Five years of my life by Alfred Dreyfus. The conditions in Germany are reminiscent of today; anti-Semitism is fierce and is blooming, it is the time when a series of trials was conducted to determine whether Jews committed ritual murder on a student in winter !!
In Switzerland that year one of the first Zionist congresses was held in Basel; These congresses have played a part in determining the course of Jewish history, and their consequences have a powerful impact on our Jewish life today. In that year we find grave newspaper feuds between Zionists and actual assimilants, and one will have to admit, on calm consideration, that the former still hold their views today, while the advocates of assimilation have either returned to the Jewish camp or that it has was mute about her! On the question: Is participation in the political parties a means against anti-Semitism? Back then it was argued with just as much verve and uselessness as it is today, and the controversy: Swiss Jews and Jewish Swiss will not be resolved, no matter how violently opinions clash.
A positive performance arises from the establishment of Switzerland. Israelite retirement asylum, the seat of which, after long debates, comes after L e n g n a u Endingen and Baden also competed for the honor of being able to accommodate our old people. Baden itself admitted the first Jew to civil rights. The municipality of Basel suffers from struggles between orthodoxy and liberalism, while in Zurich the two directions diverged shortly before. The Israelitische Cultusgemeinde, whose board is the H. H. Dr. jur. H. Guggenheim, S. Braunschweig-Weil, Ch. L-wensberg, A. Weill-Einstein, Jos. Wyler-Bernheim, Heinrich Moos and Wilh. Rieser form, there are new sta-
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Endingen synagogue.
to do, a process that has been repeated twice since then. The poor relief emerges and an arbitration tribunal for civil disputes among the members is set up, despite strong opposition; Probably a last attempt of own Jewish jurisdiction in the J. C. Z. Because of the lack of space in the synagogue, folding seats are installed (it was not a million dollar object); an application for enlargement of the cemetery is rejected because the former would last for 100 years and the credit of CHF 12,000. is way too high! (Since then cemetery land has been bought three times). Who could have foreseen the rapid growth of the church then? According to the 1900 census, Zurich had a total of 2,753 Jews; the latest census, 30 years later, will certainly give three times the number of Jewish residents. The Jewish social life was weak, it was denied by the Reunion.
There is almost no news from the small communities in Switzerland;
(Corporation II)
(Societe Anonyme)
Branches in: Basel, Bern, Geneue La ChauK-de-Fonds, Lausanne, St. Gallen, Ueueu
File capital. Fr. 100,000,000 reserves .... Fr. 80,000,000
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^^ // V

Tsraelitigche * Wochenblatt Mt die Schwaig
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Space occupancy by
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From Switzerland. Federal Council pat. Emigration and passage agency
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at the Brkli plants __ ... rtl _. .
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after after
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South America, Egypt, Palestine
Australia India
Mediterranean Travel Japan

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
Especially when reading the whole of the first year of the newspaper, the impression was that the intellectual and cultural Jewish life in our country was still very weak and that it had only just begun to develop.
There can be no doubt that the press is one of the main factors which help to make an intellectual life possible, and this newspaper deserves the recognition that Swiss Jewry has received many stimuli from it over the past 30 years; that it made possible the struggle of opinions on which alone cultural life rests; that it spread an infinite amount of knowledge and kept us in touch with the great events in Judaism.
It has thus also fulfilled what it promised us on the first page 30 years ago.
30 years of green leaves ".
By J. Messinger.
Today is the thirtieth year of the founding year of the Isr. Wochenblatt for Switzerland. When the birthday child moved out for the first time three (decades ago, it was still tiny, weak in size and not carefree. His predecessors were soon warned of the light of day. Even Hanescher (the eagle) did not fly too far. Only in the foreign libraries should Its issues can still be found. It took a lot of courage and idealism not to be deterred by the previous failures. Over time, the unfolding leaf put on its green dress. The green signifies growth, youthfulness, strength, confidence and hope . But rain and storms often shook the delicate plant. Oh, who doesn't know the bitter sorrows and joys of an editor, especially of a Jewish newspaper. Many of us believe that as a writer we are a Thomas Mann, as a scholar Einstein, as Chochom a Disraeli, as a club member a chief bonze, as a subscriber a world power, but at least an ally who at any time if it didn't work z go according to his mood, can and must loosen the waistband! Yet it is impossible to serve all directions separately. An editorial department is the dome, the roof of the building, has to keep the measure and aim and watch what can be brought under roof without damaging the building. Must also never serve the individual where the whole is at stake. Must know how to maintain full independence and stand above the parties. The Jewish newspaper should connect and not separate, classify family and congregation, associations and organizations into the Jewish community, and give readers a sense of contact with the individual congregations in the country and with the wider Jewish world.
A quick look at the Israelitisches Wochenblatt immediately reveals that all of these prerequisites have been met for the most part. Even in the most eventful times
from Fr. 5th on, in edit silver from Fr. 24th on.
Indolt-arbenz ^ Gd
Bahnhofstrasse 65, Zurich I
David Weinbaum s. A.
(Painting by Magda Marx-Weinbaum).
In recent years, the Wochenblatt has stuck to its high level of impartiality.
Thus the Israelitisches Wochenblatt has developed into a true family paper; This means not only that it lovingly accompanies the Jewish community in the sweat / from the cradle to the grave with its chronicle, faithfully reproduces the mirror image of its Jewish life and writes its history, but it belongs to the family, you can no longer do it to miss. A Friday without Israel. Family sheet is uncomfortable because it is preparation and anticipation for the Sabbath; if it is sometimes until the evening
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Israelite weekly paper for the Schweix

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
Right there is, the Post knows how to sing a song about it. You want to know what's going on in the big family. First in their own community, then throughout Switzerland, in neighboring countries, in Palestine, in America and all over the world. Swiss Jews have it sent to the most distant countries and parts of the world. It is part of the iron structure of the community. A link near and far. Here we read of every new birth, of every bargain, of every new covenant that is made. Here we hear the chiming of the jubilees and follow the big hand of the time. Also from every comrade who ends his journey in life! Commemorative sheets for relatives and friends. Here calls are made for brothers and sisters in need! And who is counting the sums that have already been collected here? This is where all parties meet, the border between East and West, between youth and old age, orthodoxy and liberalism, Aguda and Zionism is disappearing. Here the love for Judaism and for jd. Community, how to the Swiss country and its brothers
like cared for. Even non-Jews occasionally take the floor here, just as one does not shy away from defense if it proves necessary. But the bow is never stretched too much. So did Israel. In three decades, Wochenblatt has managed to acquire a very respectable community of readers and many friends in Switzerland and abroad, and has also known how to gain the respect it deserves in non-Jewish circles precisely because of its loyal attitude.
We usually call thirty years an age. The Isr. Wochenblatt has now successfully achieved this. But our sages say: Spiritual workers do not age even if they get older. Literally: Sikne Torah kol s'man schemaskinim datom misjasche-wet alehem.
That is why we wish the Isr. Wochenblatt on its thirtieth birthday: Good luck! Do right and do not be afraid of anyone. Keep the rejuvenating green garment and the virgin content and in the right place also the real Jewish humor.
The Jewish parent communities in Switzerland.
From Dr. AugustaWeldler-Steinberg.
Although the beginnings of Jewish settlement in the Confederation can be traced back to the 11th century and Jews settled in all the larger cities for short or long stays, they are
Tribal communities of Swiss Jewry are not to be found here. Between the medieval settlement and the later period lies the 16th century, in which the Swiss territories did not allow any new Jewish immigrants after the Diet expelled all Jews from the country at the end of the 15th century. At the turn of the 16th century, Jewish immigration began again. This time it takes a new path. The cities remained closed to the Jews during the period of guild rule and the mercantilist movement in the urban communities.
The new immigration takes place on the north-eastern border of the country, in the area of ​​the common bailiwicks. While they are temporarily permitted to visit markets and trade fairs, to sell and in particular to purchase certain goods in the area of ​​the federal estates without obtaining a residence permit, the governors of the subject countries find it convenient for their funds to allow them to stay for a limited time and again and again to record. This is how Jewish branches are set up in the Rhine Valley, in Klingnau in the County of Baden, in Thurgau. But soon they are deprived of these places of refuge one after the other. They have to evacuate the Rhine Valley, later they leave Klingnau and the Thurgau. The settlement concentrates more and more on the landscape. All meetings of the Diet of the 17th century are teeming with instructions, motions and resolutions to expel the Jews, but the expulsion from the county of Baden is not carried out. The thirty-year war, which drove oppressed Jews across the border, had a decisive effect. In the years
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In 1653 and 1654, twenty families were granted permission to remain in the county, although the hope was expressed that they would return to Germany in peacetime. At the same time, however, the removal of the Jews from the other bailiwicks was pronounced and actually carried out, so that from the middle of the 17th century until the fall of the old Confederation, the county of Baden remained the only area in which a Jewish population was tolerated. But your Wolmrecht is by no means granted for an unlimited period of time. Your right of residence must be renewed every 16 years, the time of so-called intercourse, the reign of a governor.
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Gradually, this settlement area, which is available to them, is also shrinking. Finally, you will be referred to the friendly village of Lengnau on the Surb. The first Jew from Lengnau is named Samuel Eiron, who allegedly blasphemed the Trinity and was beheaded as a punishment in 1633 while he was in Zurich for business. In 1658 the Jews were mentioned again when the community of Lengnau asked the bailiff to abolish them, but without success. There is still no evidence of a Jewish settlement in Endingen, an hour's walk away, downstream. Twenty years later, the Lengnau Jews complain that the peasantry no longer wants to give a Jewish distinction. And since a few weeks later, along with the Jews from Lengnau, Jews from Endingen now also have reason to complain about insults from Klingnauer and Dttinger residents, it must be assumed that some of the Lengnauers went to the neighboring village for lack of accommodation would have.
So they became. both quiet villages in the Surb valley are the home of Swiss Jewry. .
The Jewish immigrants, who have driven the same fate, oppression and mistreatment from southern Germany, Alsace and Poland into this corner of the world, forge the blood and the faithful tradition together into a community. They are viewed as isolated foreign bodies, as strangers they perceive themselves. They form a closed community and build it up according to their own laws. The state does not care about them, the bailiff only demands their taxes and the emissaries of honor the armchair allowance. They administer their community, they tax themselves according to their own standards, choose their rulers at will, teach their children the Jewish law in the chedarim and still disdain the characters, the forms of thought and the knowledge of the surrounding world. They pray in their prayer rooms and study the Talmud. Their judge and spiritual guide is the rabbi. They celebrate their parties, they speak in their own idiom. The community's deepest interest is concentrated around the parish hall, the prayer house and the cheder. Strict prohibitions keep strangers away from acquiring and cultivating the land. Only in themselves, who have to keep themselves ready for new migration at any time, lives the fear of binding ties with the earth. Small traders roam the landscape and bring the farmer fabrics for his clothing and tools for his work. They buy and sell cattle, and some of them who have grown rich borrow for interest. As everywhere, you will also find functions here that are not performed by any other class.
The Jewish community retained its autonomy for two centuries.
With the dawn of the 19th century, the revolution brought about the overthrow of the old. The subject country, which until then represented the county of Baden, is changing into a canton with equal rights
Motif from Lengnau.
Confederation, The people of a new era view the Jewish settlement in their country with a different attitude. The intoxication of the great liberation of the human race also grips the Jewish population. Those who have just been uninvolved and strangers to the destinies of the country demand their share in the revelation of freedom, equality and brotherhood. But the Swiss people remain cool and sparse towards those who do not eat with them and do not pray with them. People's representatives and the government do not consider them ripe for civil equality until they dismiss everything that makes them so unlike others, their peculiar ways of life, their ancient rascals. The task of the Aargau government towards the Jewish cantons is now education for the national culture, assimilation
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to their environment. It gradually deprives the Jewish community of its autonomy by regulating administration and community organization, teaching, the rabbinate, and the poor through a new legislation adapted to the canton's legislation and including it under its direct control. A new generation is growing up in Endingen and Lengnau, which is brought up and taught by Jewish, certified teachers. Her highest goal is set before her eyes to leave the miserable chess trade and to turn to the productive work of agriculture and handicrafts. The ideal of profane education supplants familiarity with the language of the fathers and the study of the Talmud. A sharp division opens up between opponents and friends of the new, and the inner life of the community has been under the sign of the Kulturkampf for decades. But while the Jewish population has climbed that level in a comparatively short time and their institutions meet all the requirements that may be required as a precondition for possession of emancipation, the authorities still hold back with this longed-for gift. Occasional concessions are made to them only slowly and gradually. The struggle for emancipation dominated the whole century. The two parishes lead it under the direction of men who emerged from their midst, the teacher Markus Dreyfus von Endingen, the advocate Heinrich Guggenheim von Lengnau, and the rabbi Dr. Kayserling with great energy.
Around the middle of the century the parishes reached their greatest numerical strength. A dense population of approx. 2000 souls sits in the small, cramped area, plaguing themselves and their rural neighbors. The greatest need of this population is to ease the need to settle. The government is very cautious about this request. At the end of the 1930s, individuals were granted a year-long stay in small communities and extended if the community concerned recommends it. In the Aliens Act of 1846, every Jewish canton resident is granted the right to settle in the canton, but the granting depends on the consent of the municipality and the opinion of the government council. So emigration was very weak until 1855. Only then did the restrictive passage of the Jewish law of 1809 fall, and from then on the unstoppable process of emigration from the two communities began. From year to year more and more Endinger and Lengnau Jews are leaving their ancestral homeland and, while at the beginning of the forties individual entrepreneurs turned their backs on old Europe with its Jewish restrictions, they are now settling in the towns of the canton of Aargau and in the years of emancipation in all cities of the Confederation. The task of maintaining all the institutions of the municipalities with a vastly reduced tax capital falls to those who remain behind. With the help of the government, the emigrants are first forced to pay their tax contribution and the contribution towards paying off the community debt. Later the Re-
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submission of such claims by the municipality to the administrative judge. The large municipal institutions will eventually become superfluous. The last and most important rabbi, Dr. Kayserling, after nine years of activity, leaves the Surb valley in 1870. Schools, once the pride of the parishes, are shrinking to be eventually merged with the Christian ones. The reservoir of Endingeu and Lengnau provides everything it has in the form of ambitious, developable people. The tribal communities of Switzerland. Jewry in the quiet, green Surbtal becomes a pale memory of the past Jewish life, of pressure, struggle and brotherly fellowship, in their midst the silent cemetery, the resting place of the waning generations.
Jewish tribal communities on the southern German border.
by Dr. S. H e i 1 b r o n n, Gailingen
This article was already put on paper in March.
u the source areas from whose once apparently inexhaustible Jewish Men-Q. ~ T ~ reservoir, which was fed to the entire Swiss Jewish community, belong, in addition to the classic family castles, Endingeu and
Lengnau especially the Jewish settlements in the area of ​​the lake district of Baden. The invocation of their names in this context also touches on one of the most painful problems of our times, which are not poor in excitement either. The fortunes of these places are part of the fateful events of the Jewish rural communities in general, whose deepest tragedy consists in the fact that they once had a great task from history: to be the center of power and the strongest bulwark for the preservation of Judaism. And whose fate was fulfilled when they had completed their mission, had given their sons to the cities, and they had thus become the tribal churches of the cities.
The external reasons for the inundation from the villages to the cities are essentially the same as those that caused the great internal migration of the Jews in the first place. Perhaps less here than elsewhere a fleeing from the antipathies of the agitated masses. But here, as elsewhere, the city lured with its better living conditions, its greater educational opportunities for the growing children, it lured as if it were a golden fairy tale fountain.
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Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
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And the fact that the majority of hikers turned to Switzerland was the result of the geographic location. The separation is not drawn by the political border line, it is the Hegauberge mountains further inland that close the border area against the Germany behind it and make the border residents appear as linguistic, folk, tribal equality.
It is not intended to enumerate all the towns along the border in which Jews have lived at some point. It is about the communities, that is to say, the union of people who are held together by a common idea and draw vitality from them. And it is neither coincidence nor arbitrary that the following five are selected from the large number, whose characterization can only be a fleeting one due to the scarcity of the available space. They are the most concise and important. The sequence that is kept shows at the same time the stages of the painful and thorny path that seems to have been mapped out for these rural communities. Each of the five a further station, a further stage of the ominous development downwards.
Gailingen Still a community to be proud of. Synagogue, own school house, immersion bath, rabbis, teachers, institutions, synagogue choir, many associations. And yet, compared to the past, only a weak reflection; against earlier a parish in miniature. Numbers? 100 years ago there were 596 Israelites, today there are 270. In 1825 47.6% of the total population in Gailingen were Israelite, today the Israelites make up 24%. This means that the largest rural community in Baden has moved from 3rd to 9th place. And now even the school children: 50 years ago: 180; today: 14! R a n d e g g Stagnating. 2 school children; 16 Balbatim. But what if the old die and no more children are born! If the jd. Houses become empty when Jewish youth no longer dare to found a house. When a teacher is no longer employed! Then the last remnant of religious life disappears and an image emerges like the one that beautiful cheeks offer today. Three, four families. The moody, unused synagogue. One who has the remains of the synagogue facilities in safekeeping. Tallesim lying in a box, torn old prayer cups, chuppo poles broken on the floor. Mathematically almost calculable when
Street in Gailingen.
the last one moves away, the building is sold for demolition and only the cemetery remains, as is now the case in the once large community of Worblingen. Only the cemetery as the only witness! After the doomed congregation had razed their synagogue to the ground so that it wouldn't even be hot < dieser="" stall,="" diese="" scheuer,="" das="" war="" einmal="" die="" juden-schul,="" verliess="" 1890="" der="" letzte="" jude="" das="" sinkende="" schiff.="" lebt="" jetzt="" in="" dem="" nahen="" gailingen.="" den="" immer="" noch="" rstigen="" treibt="" die="" innere="" unruhe,="" alle="" paar="" wochen="" hinauszufahren,="" sich="" dort="" umzusehen.="" ein="" getreuer="" ekkehard="" der="" dort="" ruhenden="" toten.="" wo="" aber="" diese="" persnliche="" betreuung="" der="" verlassenen="" grber="" fehlt,="" die="" kein="" verein="" ersetzen="" kann,="" dann="" bedeutet="" es="" das="" endgltige="" ende:="" sthlingen.="" jawohl="" sthlingen.="" noch="" um="" die="" mitte="" des="" 18.="" jahrhunderts="" die="" bedeutendste="" judengemeinde="" sdbadens="" mit="" synagoge,="" tauchbad.="" rabbiner.="" wer="" weiss="" heule="" noch="" etwas="" davon?="" kein="" stein,="" der="" daran="" erinnert!="">
This essay should be a columnist chat, as the editors of this paper thought. But the fabric was stronger. Deepening into the task at hand forced this gloomy painting, gray and black, of its own accord.
And yet, and yet it has to be that way? Can
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Can't a community like Gailingen, which is so pulsating with the Jewish will to live, wage an honest, heroic, often touching struggle in order not to perish, such a community, even if downsized, cannot flourish again? Approaches are available. The congregation recaptured its orphaned rabbinate seat after heavy fighting. All Jewish questions of the day are approached passionately, full of exuberant temperament. The much-lamented indifferentism has no place here.
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High points that interrupt the misery of everyday life from time to time give rise to hope again and again. Highlights: The public religious exams. The exhilarating certainty that a glowing, enthusiastic youth is growing up here, flooded with the will to live and the spirit of life that will live up to the Jewish name at any time and in any place.
Highlights: Hours of danger, as the whole community unites like one man, be it to fend off nationalist attacks, be it to save a threatened house, a threatened institution ..
The highlight was the Zrcher experience, the Landsgemeinde, as one called it. There, all Gailingen who have become Swiss, and oh, there are almost as many as those who stayed, I got together for a powerful rally to keep the Gailingen hospital together with the tribe.
The highlight: This love and loyalty of the emigrants to their home communities, which shows itself again and again. Wangen experienced it when Wangen people from all over the world flocked to the centenary bynagogue celebration. Randegg is experiencing it, all of them, all of them. .
The despondency of those who remained in their homeland should light their torches in the light of the affinity of the emigrants. They may shine on the path that, despite all fears, will perhaps lead up again.
Whether the decay of the still existing churches can be stopped, the generation now living there will be

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
have to decide. The demands on a sense of responsibility have never been so great.
May all who deal with it be aware of it and act accordingly!
From Ms. Ra bb. Dr. Treitel-Brann.

aupheim, formerly a market town, has been an administrative district for 50 years and originally had exclusively Catholic residents. It was not until 1724 that the barons v. Weiden, living at Laupheim Castle, which was under Austrian sovereignty, raised the first Jews. They found themselves in a financial embarrassment and hoped that the Jews would help raise the market. For example, four Jewish families were initially given the right to settle, namely Leopold Jakob, Josef Schlesinger, Leopold Weil from Buchau, and David Obermaier from Grundsheim. The Jewish protection contract provides for a residence permit for 20 years. The rulership of the village, the Barons v. Weiden, built a Jewish house for these four families. The annual protection fee was 25 guilders and a fattened goose. With this settlement permit, of course, as everywhere where Jews were admitted, many restrictions were connected. So z. B. sons only marry after the death of the father and no further houses are built, however large the family grows. So a barrack-like building was built up, today you can see it on the Judenberg.
New immigration of Jews took place, so that in 1754 around 27 families and in 1784 already 40 Jewish families had the right to live.The Jewish protection letter was also renewed and issued for a longer period of time. Later 5 new and soon afterwards again 8 Judenhuser were built, each for 4 families. The Jewish quarter is regularly laid out in a square. The small community laid out its cemetery near the Judenberg in 1784, next to it the first synagogue; the Jewish school and the Jewish bath were also built around this time. The community grew noticeably and reached its peak in the middle of the last century with a few hundred families.
Today, including individuals, there are only ninety families left.
Laupheim is a mother community of the Jews of Wrttemberg, because from here a larger one gradually settled. Number of families in the whole of Swabia.
In 1786 the Jewish body tax was abolished here. The Jews of Wrttemberg achieved full emancipation in 1828, when they were granted citizenship in the political community, and in 1864 the Jews, who had belonged to Wrttemberg since 1812, received full state equality. They were now under a state berkirchenhehrde (seat
Synagogue in Laupheim.
Stuttgart); for some years now they have been under an Israeli supreme council, after the separation of church and state.
The rabbi was initially a worthy Jew who had arrived, and there was also a preacher and school knocker in the community. The first rabb named in 1760. is Jakob Br from Fellheim. Later a cantor and a synagogue servant were also employed. The cantor was at the same time a teacher and also took on rabbinical functions as a substitute. Jakob Br was followed by Lmmle as rabbi until 1804; then Levy 1804 to 1824; later Aquarius until 1835. All these rabbis were employed by the community. This was followed later, appointed by the Wrttemberg government, Jakob Kaufmann until 1852, Abraham Wlder until 1876; His successor was Rabbi Kahn, then Dr. Einstein, then Rabbi Treitel, now here in retirement, alive. After him, the Laupheim Rabbinate was abolished and is now a U 1 m branch, while the reverse was the case in the past.
Of welfare institutions, the following should be mentioned: the Chewre-Kadian, Chewre-Talmud-Torah, Chewre-No-shim. There is also a Matan-Bessser Foundation Maintenance; Year-time foundations get there, the interest of which is distributed for learning. This charity association was founded in 1834, the Fr. Association in 1838, the Talmnd Torah Association in 1780, and the Chewre-Kadische right at the beginning of the Gemenide emergence.
The congregation founded a reading club Conco ^ dia in 1846, a choral society Frohsinn, which came into being the year before, which creates an atmospheric service by singing.
At first, the Israelites had Hanseatic and traveling teachers in schools. A jd. Elementary school was established in 1823 in the Gasthaus zum Rad. First teacher
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was Simon Tannenbaum; there were 109 school-age children. In 1830 the school was relocated to the rabbinate house opposite the synagogue. As the number of children grew steadily due to the large number of births, a newly built school building in Radstrasse was moved into in 1868. Teachers include Pressburger, Elssser, Heimann, Gideon. Today is the jd. stdt. Primary school only private school due to the reduced number of pupils (15).
As a curiosity I add: The Freiherrn v. Weiden had put the following inscription above their castle portal: A Jew and a pig are not allowed in here. But world history is the world judgment, because later the castle in jd. Possession and the owner who acquired it (Kilian v. Steiner) had already taken offense at the inscription as a child and assured me at that time that he would do everything in his power to remove this stain for his religious community. And so it happened.
Hegenheim cemetery.
The Jewish communities in Sundgau (Sdelsass).
From Dr. M. Ginsburger.
he former Duchy of Alsace was divided into two counties, the Nordgau and the Sundgau, at the time of Charlemagne, around 800. The Eckenbach near Schlettstadt formed the dividing line between the two areas. The Sundgau extended in the west as far as the watershed of the Vosges, in the east as far as the Rhine and in the south as far as the Birs, so it probably included Basel as well.
In the later Middle Ages, the name Sundgau was used to designate the southern part of Alsace, which as a result of the acquisition of the county of Pfirt by the Habsburgs (1324) in the south beyond the source of the III to the Ltzel, a tributary of the Birs, and in the south-west over the Savoureuse had been extended to include the cities of Pfirt and Beifort. The northern border was the Thr from its source to Staffelfelden and from here a straight line to Neuchâtel on the Rhine. But Sundgau is not a delimited administrative district in this sense, any more than it is today, where the name is used as a common name for the landscape in the foothills of the Jura south of Mlhausen.
Landgrave of the Sundgau, d. H. of the territories that belonged to the empire were the Habsburgs until the Peace of West Flanders, and from then on the kings of France. At the time of the Great Revolution, the Sundgau was united with the Departement du Haut-Rhin and has remained so to this day.
Accordingly, there is no doubt that it was the Habsburgs who gave the first Jewish settlers the authorization to settle in the Sundgau. When did this happen. Cannot be specified with certainty. But it is reasonable to assume that as in Strasbourg and Lower Alsace too
in Sundgau the Jews expelled from France during the Second Crusade (1146/47) sought refuge. In any case, the Chronicle of Thann probably knows from older sources that the persecution of Jews took place in Sennheim, Thann, Rodern, Burnhaupt and Issenheim as early as 1309. All of these localities belonged to the possessions of the Habsburg rule in Alsace.
The chronicle writer believes that it was because of their misdeeds that the Jews were caught and burned in the villages and towns mentioned. However, it leaves us completely in the dark about the nature of these misdeeds. But we learn from another source that, as almost always, these were economic hardships, debtors trying to get rid of their burdens. This also explains the fact that some of the persecuted sought protection in Ensisheim, i.e. in a place that also belonged to the Habsburgs. So they were certainly not the originators of the persecution.
In the years 1336 and 1349 the persecution of Jews also took place in Pfirt and A 11 k i r c h. Four baptized Jews confessed to the council in Basel on July 4, 1349 that they, among others, from Isaak von Pfirt, Jfferli von Ensisheim and Salmann, Trutlin's brother, had received poison from Altkirch to poison the wells.
Soon afterwards, some of those who escaped the fate seem to have found at least a welcome in Basel. So we find there (1365) a woman Serli von Altkirch, a Lweli von Altkirch and his wife. Children and Servants (1371). Trine von Sennheim, Lina, their daughter, and their children, Jacob von Pfirt, Joseph von Kaysersberg, Frau Serlin von Altkirch and Jakob der Wechsler, her husband, Isaachin and Jecki, their son, von Ensisheim.
In the 15th century we hear little about Jewish communities in Sundgau. However, individual branches seem to have existed, presumably in the same places where we will still find them in the following century, in Ensisheim,
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Regisheim, Issenheim, where the progenitor of the famous High Rabbi Lob from Prague lived, in Battenheim, Rixheim, Mnchhausen, Habsheim, Pfastatt, Morschweiler, Wintzenheim, Kienzheim, Ammerschweier, Orschweiler. The village of Hsingen, which belongs to Murbach Abbey, was also inhabited by Jews in 1543, and later also Blotzheim and Liebenzweiler temporarily.
On September 1, 1573, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria issued a so-called from Innsbruck < wuchermandat="" sowohl="" juden="" als="" christen="" betreffend,="" laut="" welchem="" bis="" zum="" 1.="" juni="" 1574="" smtliche="" juden="" aus="" dem="" bereich="" der="" landvogtei="" ensisheim="" auszuschaffen="" seien.="" einzelne="" dieser="" vertriebenen="" familien="" fanden="" im="" frstbistum="" basel="" aufnahme.="" doch="" scheinen="" sich="" ihre="" nachkommen="" in="" der="" folgezeit="" in="" anderen="" gegenden="" angesiedelt="" zu="" haben,="" da="" eine="" wiederaufnahme="" der="" juden="" in="" den="" sundgauischen="" ortschaften="" allem="" anscheine="" nach="" erst="" nach="" dem="" dreissigjhrigen="" kriege="" stattgefunden="">
We can best see this from the memorandum of the Intendant d'Anaervilliers, according to which in 1689 only one Jewish family lived in Uffheim, Obersteinbrunn, Drmenach, Frningen and Hirsingen. At that time two families lived in Rixheim, Habsheim, Buschweiler and Zillisheim, three in Sierenz, Kembs, Oberhagenthal, four in Blotzheim, five in Dornach, and fourteen in Hegenheim. From then on, their number increased more and more. A hundred years later, Hegenheim had 83 families, Drmenach 73, Niederhagenthal 67, Oberhagenthal 52, Rixheim 50, Blotzheim 47, Sierenz 43, Niedersept 32, Buschweiler 38, Habshein 29, Oberdorf 28, Lumschweiler 25, Uffheim 26, Hirsingen 20, Kembs 17, Obersteinbrunnl7 families. The development of these communities was an upward trend
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around the middle of the last century. From that time on, the number of souls steadily decreased. As early as 1808, around twenty families from Oberhagenthal, Hegenheim, Blotzheim, Drmenach, Habsheim, Wintzenheim and Sierenz were living in Basel. We meet others in La Chaux-de-Fonds, in Bern, Biel, Avenches, as well as in the cantons of Baselland, Solothurn, Friborg, Neuchâtel and Vaud.
Immigration to Switzerland and France also came from those communities that had emerged in the areas of the old Sundgau between Thr and Eckenbach and where a large number of Jewish families lived as early as 1689, from Rappoltsweiler (18), Bergheim (10), Herrlishcim (2), Hattstatt (4), Wintzenheim (7), Grussenheim (4), Sulz (4), Sulzmatt (6), Gebweiler (3), Wattweilev (3), Uff-holz (3).
The fact that so many Jewish families left their Classical hometowns as soon as they were given the opportunity to do so proves irrefutably that their number there was too great and that their economic situation was untenable and not insignificant both for them and for their Christian fellow citizens There was danger in itself.
This had already been shown in the 18th century, when around 1779 a large part of the Sundgau farmers tried to discharge their debts to the Jewish creditors by making false receipts in Hessen, and when the revolution broke out in 1789 in Sundgau again Jewish persecutions were staged and the Jewish families affected by them had to seek refuge temporarily in Basel and Mlhausen.
Even in 1848 after the fall of Louis-Phi-lip, the Jewish inhabitants of the Sundgau region had to suffer a lot. The two largest communities, Drmenach and Hegenheim, were particularly hard hit. The consequence of this were numerous and protracted lawsuits by the Jews against their persecutors and against the municipal administrations and, in particular, a clouded relationship between Jews and Christians. It is therefore no wonder that at this time the emigration movement was particularly popular. Anyone who was able to do so somehow sold their lying goods and settled in other areas. Then came the Franco-German War in 1870/71 and the separation of Alsace from France, as well as the introduction of numerous laws directed against the trade of Jews, which is why many Jewish families again left their hometowns and lived with theirs in Switzerland and France Relatives and acquaintances were looking for a better way of life. Finally, the unfortunate world war also contributed to the fact that a number of Jewish communities in Sundgau have either already ceased to exist or will be dissolved in the foreseeable future. I will publish a detailed history of these churches elsewhere.
Bertha Burkhardt, Zurich 1
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Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
The cities! in the East
by Ing.Lazarus Zelwer
he town in the east, oh how far away. Thanks to Gotl that we have finally overcome it speaks and thinks many a Jew who came from the East, now in Western Europe or in the land of the dollars, has achieved fortune and reputation. It tortured him long enough before he adapted to the new world. It was difficult for him until he was ready to live and enjoy European life. Now you have a nice, clean apartment, stylish furniture, carpets, mirrors and all kinds of trinkets that make life comfortable and pleasant. You can also really enjoy yourself, you go to the theater, go to the cinema, sit in a posh cafe. What kind of life was it in the distant, forgotten town with the impossible alleys, the shapeless huts, the old Franconian furniture, the smelling petrol lamps, the petty peeping in the pots, the eternal considerations for the aunt and the uncle The colorless monotony of life, the petty quarreling, the boring grumbling of the chakra (city philosopher) and all that stuff that stuck to you like the scent of tar for many years afterwards. No, you really don't have to long for the past! Only rarely, usually, When you hear such a real Jewish song or once in a quiet, breathing synagogue on a festival day you see the congregation looking so decently indifferently into the prayer cups, it comes over you like an inner ray that emits an incomprehensible warmth of soul, brings a distant light into the imagination so that images from the past emerge in unperceived chunks of the soul - images, transfigured, full of real, blissful n Mind and inner harmony that wants to appear like a tohu-wabohu in relation to the whole of the now. A feeling of emotional excitement and independence floods the whole consciousness, and seldom exuded feelings of joy full of incomprehensible bliss evoke sunken sounds and mood colors. One sees oneself set back over time and space into the old Bessmedrisch (Bet-Hamidrash, i.e. teaching house) with the dark, partially washed-off walls and the mosaic-like pieced together panes of the windows, with the long tables, carved up by countless hands, full next to and Loosely placed books on top of each other, which are often missing not only the back, but also many a sheet in the front or in the middle. One remembers a winter evening when several hundred young people swayed back and forth over the open books to the rhythm of the maj-koma-schmo-lon melody in an ecstasy that drove away all worries, each with his own nigun, each in other words in the Mouth, but all animated by a mighty breath of true elevation; a breath that transformed the whole noise into an unforgettable symphony that penetrated into the deepest secrets of the soul. No wonder then that the mother, who knew her sons to be participants in this choir, which was audible down into the back streets, shed a tear of joy in her eyes
The town in the east.
flow out of Hess. Yes, how warm, how unspeakably overflowing it felt then. If the European knows a similar mental state, he can do something similar with all his stimulants, even with true art. To evoke emotion?
Or a S i m c h a s t o i r e (Simchat Torah festival) in the hermitage of the Hasidim. On the long table covered with a linen cloth stood three bottles of Maschke (drink, usually wine) and a few glasses. Only a few of those present sit on the long, backless benches, all of them hand-twisted in a swaying wheel, with all their bodies and facial expressions, indulging in a rhythmic dance to the tones of the fiery nigun, and it seems as if the whole thing has changed The room is transformed into a swelling melody that carries the entranced in its wings. The children compete to cheer on the dancers. And no one knew where their own ego ends and the other begins. Everything was interwoven, merged into one, removed from the real and removed.
Can all of the joys that Europe has to offer in abundance be able to trigger a single moment of such harrowing experience?
The town also had its lavish folk festivals, such as the inauguration of a new Thora roll. Preparations began days in advance. Those who could carve, paint, glue and build made flags, torches, lanterns and artfully fabricated wire towers, plates and pipes. On the lesttae itself, the members of the congregation gathered in droves in the synagogue, where they were honored by writing one of the last letters of the Torah. The donors of the Torah scroll then used to greet each guest with gingerbread and schnapps or wine and prepare a meal for the poor. Towards evening the chapel (wedding canopy) was brought to the festival house and the whole youth of the town brought the self-made lighting fixtures or musical instruments in front of the house.
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Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
Men the quick clicks and hums of the band with the violinist at the top, penetrated. Without much commanding, a procession formed, in front the silk-clad rabbi in a shimmering stripe (fur hat), whose patriarchal face, surrounded by a long beard, had the look of a triumphant, then the musicians walking in front of the chapel. Under the chapel were the parents of the Torah scroll, with their child in their arms, who was wrapped in a new neat tallis.Behind the chapel, the lampion towers were arranged between two rows of torch-bearers, which the singers and players followed with their improvised instruments. So the festive procession moved through all the streets, up to the synagogue, where all the lights were lit, like on a festival day, and the rabbi and the community leaders guided the Torah to their peace with homage. Dreamlike and wonderful figures appear who brought joy, consolation and poetry into the Jewish life of the city.
The miracle rabbi stands out from the troubled everyday life. Like a sunken fairy tale world, one remembers the Shbeissen Night (Sabbath evening) at the Rebbe. Outside, the working day had already penetrated the crowded houses and the open shutters, in the background of which you could see the crooks' heads crouched over the account books, frowning thoughtfully. There was a festive atmosphere inside by the Rebbe. The silk caftans buzzed, and the Hamawdil songs and chants pulled away from the
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doloh prayer until the Mlawe-Malke (Sabbath evening meal), to which everyone present brought the remains of the Sabbath meals. They went to table shortly before midnight and accompanied Queen Sabbath with melancholy and swift chants until late at night. In this way, some of the Sabbath poetry was saved into everyday life. The night played an extremely important role in the life of the small Jewish town and at certain times had something almost essential about it. Who could imagine the rush to the first sweet things (prayers before the New Year) without the nocturnal darkness, in which the shrill whistling of the autumn wind, with the depressed mood of the silent figures languishing for the bus, formed a strange harmony. The Wachnchle on the first evening of Schwiess and on Yom-Kippur were particularly attractive. The Bachurim (Torah disciples) gathered in the Bessmedresch, where they prayed until morning. The voices came in ghostly alternating from different ends of the spacious room, overturned, increased, swelled, disappeared, only to wake Wieden soon. Ain Schowuaus was used to organize an excursion into the open air afterwards, and miracles were told about God's world afterwards.
The Mewakker (visitor to the sick) is a peculiar, unforgettable figure. The first to be entrusted with an open or still hidden ailment was the Mewakker. His task was to recommend the right doctor, in mild cases to prepare the medicine himself and to administer it to the affected person, in more severe and hopeless cases to encourage the patient and his relatives to give them courage and consolation. Day after day he made the rounds of the town without accepting the slightest payment. He had a business that usually didn't take up much time. If something happened during the night, you knew immediately that you would not have to wait long for the first call in front of the window of the Mewakker. With the lantern in one hand and a thick stick in the other, he wandered through puddles and often in the icy snowstorm to where his help was needed.
The Lustiginacher of the city was the Badchen (wedding singer). At every family celebration in the town, the bathing must be present. Especially at a wedding he had his hands full before work. He had to take the groom from the house, where he usually spent the afternoon with his colleagues talking about what he had learned and experienced before the wedding, to the wedding. With songs in which he describes the name and often the story of the groom

Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
plaited, he led him to the forecourt of the synagogue. Before the wedding he had to sing about the bride with songs in which he made allusions to the duties and joys of married life that awaited them.
There was nothing to be expected in the city of the coercion and rush that characterize the professional life of the big city. Every little joy was savored to the core, every experience was absorbed in depth, and over everything flowed an invisible fluid of inner calm and unbroken firmness.
The war has shaken the life of the city in the most tangible way. Countless Jewish towns have perished, others have been dragged into the abyss of ruin and despair by the steadily increasing economic crisis. The Jewish town is faced with problems, the solution of which it has not grown in the slightest and which bring about radical changes in mentality and popular life.
The vests of the primitive Jewish spirit and its soul are still preserved. Will the East Jewish town be able to withstand the raging currents for a long time to come?
Lord Melchett
One of the most important figures from contemporary Jewish life disappears. Lord Melchett, formerly Sir Alfred Mond, died at the age of 62. A man as important as an industrialist and a politician; devoted to the idea of ​​a Jewish Palestine to the depths of his heart, hence a leading figure in Zionism and in the Jewish Agency, whereby he differed favorably from other Zionist leaders through ruthless openness and clear insight.
Born in 1868 as the son of the great chemist Dr. Ludwig Mond (who came from Kassel and left large foundations to his hometown and various German educational establishments), he studied law, then joined the Brunner, Mond & Cie. Company, the most important chemical works in England, of which his father was one of the founders also played a leading role in other large industrial enterprises. In 1906 he became a (liberal) member of parliament, in 1916 he joined Lloyd George's cabinet as First Commissioner of Works and was appointed Minister of Welfare in 1921. The combination of extensive business experience with a wealth of knowledge of foreign affairs soon earned him recognition as one of the most influential personalities in English business life. He became head of the largest British industrial group, Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. Melchett repeatedly appeared as an opponent of socialism, but at the same time also in the sense of a
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standing with the workforce. In 1926 he joined the Conservative Party.
In Jewish life, Lord Melchett devoted his great influence to the promotion of Zionist goals and intensely supported the Palestine policy embodied in the Balfour Declaration. In 1928 he became a member of the advisory committee for the economic development of Palestine headed by Herbert Samuel, later chairman of the Economic Board for Palestine, president and honorary vice-president of the English Keren Hajessod, 1928 president of the English Zionist national association. He has been to Palestine repeatedly and in England's public life made vigorous political and economic propaganda for Palestine. He was extremely involved in the creation of the Jewish Agency and was elected President of the Council together with Louis Marshall at the first meeting of the Agency Council (1929 in Zurich). He recently resigned from this post to protest against the new white paper policy of the British government, which he fiercely opposed. Melchett has given large sums of money to the Palestine development in the form of donations and investments, such as 25,000 pounds sterling to the National Fund. One of his daughters is married to their son Lord Readings.
The Hebrew schoolwork in Palestine. Published by Ke-r e n H a j e s s n d. The Jewish school system of Palestine is treated in detail in (read nicely illustrated brochure. In the first chapter the renaissance of the Hebrew language and the spiritual foundations of the new school system are dealt with. Zion. Organization is subordinate to 227 schools with almost 20,000 pupils, other organizations and private individuals 108 schools with 10,000 pupils, every level, kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, college is reported in detail and in the final chapter the general cultural life and the development of the widely ramified newspapers and the theater are subjected to a critical appraisal.
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Israelite weekly paper for Switzerland
Palestine Rundschau.
The adjourned London negotiations. Postponement of the Zionist Congress? The unsolved successor to Weizmann. Even the Arabs against the white paper. Bataschuh crisis in Palestine. Rothschild donated 2.5 million to colonies.
Dr. L. W. The postponement of negotiations between the Jewish Agency and the British Government until January has shown that an agreement is still a long way off. In Zionist circles one doubts whether it makes any sense in the current situation to continue negotiating. Near Est and India, the semi-official organ of the colonial office, said in an editorial that if the Zionist side were to give in, a compromise formula could be found, but the Zionist leaders refused to speak only of a spiritual center, they provide As before, the demand for a publicly and legally secure home for the Jewish V o 1 k, as it is called in the Basel program of Zionism. The British government has presented a compromise according to which immigration, although not blocked, is limited, and the purchase of land in Palestine is not prohibited, but controlled
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