What is the quota of linguistic minorities

on minimum standards for minorities in the EU

(2018/2036 (INI))

The European Parliament,

- having regard to Articles 2 and 3 (3) of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Article 19 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU),

- having regard to Articles 10, 21 and 22 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

- having regard to Council Directive 2000/43 / EC of 29 June 2000 on the application of the principle of equal treatment regardless of race or ethnic origin,

- having regard to the Copenhagen criteria and the body of Union legislation that a candidate country must comply with in order to join the EU (the acquis),

- having regard to the United Nations General Assembly Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,

- having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948,

- having regard to resolution A / RES / 60/7 entitled “Remembrance of the Holocaust”, adopted on November 1, 2005 by the General Assembly of the United Nations,

- having regard to the European Convention on Human Rights and its protocols, in particular Protocol No. 12 on non-discrimination,

- having regard to the 2018 report on Fundamental Rights and the second European Union survey on minorities and discrimination (EU-MIDIS II) by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA),

- having regard to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, adopted on December 13, 2006, and its Optional Protocol (A / RES / 61/106),

- having regard to the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities ("Framework Convention") and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ​​("Language Charter"),

- having regard to resolution 1985 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, adopted in 2014, on the situation and rights of national minorities in Europe,

- having regard to resolution 2153 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, adopted in 2017, on promoting the inclusion of Roma and travelers,

- having regard to resolution 2196 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, adopted in 2018, on the protection and promotion of regional or minority languages ​​in Europe,

- having regard to resolution 424 of the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, adopted in 2017, on regional and minority languages ​​in Europe today,

- having regard to Recommendation 1201 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted in 1993 on the Additional Protocol on Minority Rights to the European Convention on Human Rights,

- having regard to the declaration of 1 February 2012 by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on the rise in antigypsyism and racially motivated violence against Roma in Europe,

- having regard to guideline No. 5 on relations between the Council of Europe and the European Union, adopted at the Third Summit of Heads of State or Government of the Council of Europe on 16 and 17 May 2005 in Warsaw,

- having regard to the OSCE Copenhagen Document of 1990 and the numerous relevant recommendations and guidelines of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the OSCE,

- having regard to Council Directive 2000/43 / EC of 29 June 2000 on the application of the principle of equal treatment regardless of race or ethnic origin (1),

- having regard to its resolution of 7 February 2018 on the protection and non-discrimination of minorities in the EU Member States (2),

- having regard to its resolution of 25 October 2017 on "Fundamental rights aspects of Roma integration in the EU: Combating antigypsyism" (3),

- having regard to Council Framework Decision 2008/913 / JHA of 28 November 2008 on combating certain forms and expressions of racism and xenophobia through criminal law (4),

- having regard to its resolution of 13 December 2016 on the situation of fundamental rights in the European Union (5),

- having regard to its resolution of 15 April 2015 on International Roma Day on 'Antigypsyism in Europe and EU recognition of the Day of Remembrance of the Roma Genocide during World War II' (6),

- having regard to its resolution of 11 September 2013 on European languages ​​in danger of extinction and linguistic diversity in the European Union (7),

- having regard to its resolution of 8 June 2005 on the protection of minorities and measures against discrimination in an enlarged Europe (8),

- having regard to its resolution of 12 December 2017 on the 2017 Citizenship Report: Strengthening Citizens' Rights in a Union of Democratic Change (9),

- having regard to its resolution of 25 October 2016 with recommendations to the Commission on the establishment of an EU mechanism for democracy, the rule of law and fundamental rights (10),

- having regard to the judgment and settled case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ), in particular case T ‑ 646/13 (Minority SafePack - one million signatures for diversity in Europe v. The Commission), and to the settled case law of European Court of Human Rights (ECHR),

- having regard to the FRA reports and surveys, for example the report entitled “Respect for and protection of persons belonging to minorities 2008-2010”, and other relevant reports from national, European and international organizations and non-governmental organizations,

- having regard to the activities and results of the Intergroup on Traditional Minorities, National Communities and Languages ​​of the European Parliament,

- having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

- having regard to the report of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs and the opinion of the Committee on Culture and Education (A8-0353 / 2018),

A. whereas the rights of persons belonging to minorities are an integral part of universal, indivisible and inalienable human rights; whereas the protection and promotion of minority rights is essential for peace, security and stability, and for promoting tolerance, mutual respect and understanding and cooperation among all people living in a given area;

B. whereas the EU is a mosaic of cultures, languages, religions, traditions and history, forming a community of diverse citizens united by common core values; whereas this wealth of Europe cannot be taken for granted and should be protected and cherished;

C. whereas around 8% of EU citizens belong to a national minority and around 10% speak a regional or minority language; whereas persistent harassment, discrimination - including multiple and intersectional discrimination - and violence limit people's opportunities to fully enjoy their fundamental rights and freedoms and make it difficult for them to participate on an equal footing in society;

D. whereas protecting the rights of persons belonging to minorities can help build a sustainable future for Europe and ensure respect for the principles of dignity, equality and non-discrimination; whereas this is not only beneficial for minorities, as protecting and promoting them brings stability, economic development and prosperity for all;

E.

F. whereas the term “minorities” is not defined in the EU Treaties, which follow the approach of international law in this regard; whereas, under Article 17 TEU, the Commission is responsible for the application of the Treaties;

G. whereas Article 19 TFEU allows the Council, acting unanimously to take appropriate action to combat discrimination, in accordance with a special legislative procedure and with the consent of the European Parliament;

H. whereas the term “national minorities” has become a concept of Union law through the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union; whereas Article 21 of the Charter explicitly states that discrimination is prohibited; whereas particular attention should be paid to protecting the fundamental rights of the most vulnerable;

I. whereas Article 9 TEU expressly states in the context of the definition of Union citizenship that the Union respects the principle of the equality of its citizens, whom the institutions, bodies and offices of the Union shall respect equally is granted;

J. whereas the Framework Convention and the Language Charter are important achievements in the international system for the protection of minorities and are important standard-setting instruments for the States parties; whereas the slow ratification process, the reservations expressed by the contracting parties and the lack of control powers weaken the effect of these agreements and thus depend on the goodwill of the contracting states; Notes that the systematic failure to implement judgments, decisions and recommendations means that it becomes the rule not to respect these two international conventions;

K. whereas the development of common European minimum standards for the protection of persons belonging to minorities should take into account best practices that already exist in the Member States - for example in Italy (Alto Adige / South Tyrol) or Germany (Schleswig- Holstein) - are applied;

L. whereas the rights of persons belonging to minorities are guaranteed in multilateral and bilateral international agreements and enshrined in the constitutional orders of many Member States, and the level of respect for these rights is a basic requirement for assessing the state of the rule of law ;

M. whereas the directive on the application of the principle of equal treatment regardless of race or ethnic origin (2000/43 / EC) is a key legal instrument in the fight against ethnic and racial discrimination; whereas several Member States have still not fully implemented them; whereas, in accordance with Article 5 of this directive, the principle of equal treatment does not prevent Member States from maintaining or adopting specific measures designed to prevent or compensate for racial or ethnic disadvantage in order to guarantee full equality;

N. whereas the motto of the European Union, United in Diversity, was adopted in 2000 and emphasizes respect for diversity as one of the fundamental values ​​of the European Union;

O. whereas the Copenhagen criteria are part of the EU's accession criteria; whereas one of the three Copenhagen criteria clearly requires that the countries guarantee a democratic and constitutional order, respect for human rights and the respect and protection of minorities; whereas minority rights are no longer monitored once a candidate country has become a Member State;

P. whereas experience has shown that pre-accession countries are more willing to respect the Copenhagen criteria; whereas in some Member States serious setbacks can be observed in this regard after accession to the EU, due to the lack of an adequate framework to ensure that these criteria are also met after accession; whereas the EU still lacks common standards at Union level for the protection of minorities in the Member States;

Q. whereas the Union currently has limited tools to tackle systematic and institutional manifestations of discrimination, racism and xenophobia; whereas, despite numerous requests made to the Commission, only limited measures have been taken to ensure the effective protection of persons belonging to minorities;

R. October 2016 reiterating the establishment of an EU mechanism for democracy, rule of law and fundamental rights (11) and that this mechanism could be at the center of a currently non-existent coordinated European governance approach;

S. whereas languages ​​are an integral part of European identity and the most direct expression of culture; whereas respect for linguistic diversity is a fundamental value of the EU, which is stated, for example, in Article 22 of the Charter and the Preamble of the TEU - there with the phrase “drawing on the cultural, religious and humanistic heritage of Europe, from which the inviolable and have developed inalienable human rights as well as freedom, democracy, equality and the rule of law as universal values ​​”- is laid down;

T. whereas linguistic diversity is an important part of a region's cultural richness; whereas 40 to 50 million people in the EU speak one of the EU's 60 regional and minority languages, some of which are at serious risk; whereas there is a decline in minority languages ​​across Europe; whereas languages ​​spoken by small communities that do not have official language status are increasingly threatened with extinction;

U. whereas it is estimated that one in 1,000 people uses a national sign language as their first language; whereas these languages ​​should be accorded official language status;

V. whereas in inclusive societies both individual and national identity are important and not mutually exclusive; whereas the national legal systems of the Member States have significant minority gaps and a low degree of harmonization and symmetry;

W. whereas Europe's cultural heritage is rich and diverse; whereas cultural heritage enriches the lives of all citizens; whereas Article 3 TEU states that the Union “will [safeguard] the richness of its cultural and linguistic diversity and […] protect and develop Europe's cultural heritage”; whereas minority people who have lived in Europe for centuries contribute to this rich, unique and diverse heritage and are an integral part of European identity;

X. whereas the recognition of minorities and respect for their rights varies greatly between Member States; whereas minorities across the EU are still exposed to institutionalized discrimination and humiliating stereotypes, and even their already acquired rights are often restricted or are only selective;

Y. whereas there is a difference between protecting minorities and taking action against discrimination; whereas the principle of non-discrimination is not enough to stop assimilation; whereas real equality goes beyond non-discrimination and means that minorities can enjoy their rights - such as the right to identity, the use of their mother tongue and rights related to education, culture and civil rights - in the same way as the majority of the population is guaranteed;

Z. whereas the increase in xenophobic violence and agitation in the European Union - often driven by right-wing extremist forces - is also directed against and aims to target persons belonging to minorities;

AA. whereas EU citizens belonging to minorities expect more to be done at EU level to protect their rights, as evidenced by the large number of petitions addressed to the European Parliament in this regard;

FROM.whereas the European Citizens' Initiative 'Minority SafePack' has collected 1,215,879 signatures from across the EU, showing that these EU citizens want the legal framework for action on minorities at EU level is improved;

AC. whereas there is great room for improvement in the implementation of the protection of minority rights in the EU; whereas the legitimacy of democratic institutions rests on the participation and representation of all groups in society, including those belonging to minorities;

1. Points out that Member States must ensure that minorities can fully exercise their human rights, both individually and as a community;

2. Points out that while the protection of minorities is part of the Copenhagen criteria for the candidate countries and the Member States, there is no guarantee that the candidate countries will continue to respect the commitments made under the Copenhagen criteria even if they are Member States became;

3. Notes that the EU still lacks effective instruments to monitor and enforce respect for minority rights; Regrets that, with regard to the protection of minorities, the Union either tacitly assumes that the Member States respect minority rights or that it relies on external monitoring instruments such as those of the United Nations, the Council of Europe or the OSCE;

4. Notes that compliance with the Copenhagen criteria by both countries that are not yet part of the EU and by the Member States must be continuously monitored by Parliament, the Commission and the Council and must be the subject of a permanent dialogue within and between them; Stresses the need for a comprehensive EU minority protection system with a robust monitoring mechanism;

5. Points out that, under Article 17 (1) TEU, as guardian of the Treaties, the Commission is legitimized and empowered to ensure that all Member States respect the rule of law and the other values ​​referred to in Article 2 TEU; takes the view, therefore, that the measures taken by the Commission to carry out this task and to ensure that the conditions that were met at the time of accession of the Member States are still in place do not constitute a violation of the sovereignty of the Member States;

6. Points out that, within the framework of applicable international standards, each Member State has the right to define which persons belong to national minorities;

7.  

- are resident in the territory of this state and are citizens of this state,

- maintain long-term, solid and permanent ties to this state,

- have special ethnic, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics,

- are sufficiently representative, although their number is smaller than that of the rest of the population of this state or a region of this state,

- are inspired by the desire to preserve together the characteristics characteristic of their identity, in particular their culture, their traditions, their religion or their language;

8. Reiterates its reference to guideline No. 5 on relations between the Council of Europe and the European Union, which was adopted by the Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the Council of Europe on 16 and 17 May 2005 in Warsaw and which states that the European Union is endeavoring to transpose these aspects of the Council of Europe Conventions into European Union law within the limits of its competence;

9. Notes that parts of the provisions of the Framework Convention and the Language Charter fall within the competence of the EU and reiterates the FRA conclusion that, although the Union does not have general legislative competence to decide on the protection of national minorities as such but can decide on a wide variety of issues affecting persons belonging to national minorities;

10.  

11. Points out that the protection of minority rights is contained in the proposal for the conclusion of a Union pact for democracy, the rule of law and fundamental rights ("DRG pact"); in this regard, reiterates the call in its resolution of 25 October 2016 on the establishment of an EU mechanism for democracy, rule of law and fundamental rights, and reiterates its call for the Commission to present a proposal for the conclusion of a DRG pact; calls on the Commission to take into account minority rights in all strands of the EU mechanism for democracy, rule of law and fundamental rights;

12. Encourages the Commission to set up a body at Union level for the recognition and protection of minorities in the EU, either within existing structures or as a separate body;

13. Welcomes the fact that the European citizens' initiative "Minority SafePack", which calls for a European framework for the protection of minorities, has been properly registered and has managed to collect a sufficient number of signatures; Encourages the Commission to study how the interests and needs of minorities can be better promoted at EU level;

14. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to guarantee persons belonging to minorities the right to preserve, protect and develop their own identity and to take the necessary steps to enable minorities to participate in social, economic and cultural life and to promote in public life;

15. Points out that citizenship of the Union is obtained through citizenship of a Member State as regulated by national law; Points out that, in relation to access to citizenship, Member States should be guided by the principles of EU law, such as the principles of proportionality and non-discrimination, both of which are fully explained in the established case law of the ECJ; Notes that, according to Article 20 of the TFEU, anyone who is a national of a Member State is a Union citizen and that Union citizens enjoy the rights provided for in the Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights; reiterates that the Treaties require all Union citizens to receive the same level of respect from the institutions;

16. Reiterates its deep concern that so many Roma in Europe are stateless, with the result that they are completely denied access to welfare, education and health care and are pushed to the very fringes of society; Calls on the Member States to end statelessness and ensure that everyone can enjoy basic human rights;

17. Encourages the Member States to take effective measures to remove all barriers to access to health care for persons belonging to minorities; Notes that minority groups have limited access to health care and health-related information; Encourages the Commission and the Member States to ensure that minorities have non-discriminatory access to both physical and mental health care services;

18. Calls on the European Union to declare its accession to the Framework Convention and the Language Charter, calls on the Member States to ratify these agreements and calls on both the EU and the Member States to respect the principles set out therein; calls on the Member States and the Commission to refrain from acting contrary to the principles set out therein; Notes that the institutions and the Member States must refrain, on the one hand, from creating minimum standards for minorities in the EU, but, on the other hand, from enacting legislation and administrative measures that weaken or limit the rights of persons belonging to minorities;

19. Reaffirms that indigenous peoples must be able to exercise their rights free from discrimination of any kind, and that they have the right to dignity and the diversity of their culture, traditions, history and aspirations, both in education and in information directed to the public must be adequately expressed; calls on those Member States that have not yet done so to ratify and implement in good faith the Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (ILO Convention No. 169);

20. Believes that, on the basis of the implementation of international standards and norms, common European minimum standards for the protection of the rights of persons belonging to minorities should be developed in the EU, based on the principles of good neighborliness and friendly relations, as well in a spirit of cooperation both between Member States and with neighboring third countries; Considers that the adoption of common European minimum standards should not restrict already existing rights and norms protecting persons belonging to minorities; Recalls the need to implement the commitments and principles entered into or elaborated in the framework of the OSCE, in particular in its relevant recommendations and guidelines; notes that the Commission has already taken these requirements into account in the framework of the Copenhagen criteria during the accession negotiations; calls on the Commission in this regard to apply the same guidelines to all Member States;

21. Stresses that anti-discrimination rules alone cannot solve the problems faced by minorities, nor can they stop their assimilation; Notes that persons belonging to minorities fall into a special category with regard to the right to a legal remedy and have special needs that must be met in order to guarantee such persons full and effective equality and that their rights are respected and must be promoted, including the right to freely express, maintain and develop their cultural or linguistic identity while respecting the identity, values ​​and principles of their country of residence; Recommends that the Commission encourage regular close monitoring of cultural and linguistic diversity in the EU;

22. Encourages the Commission and the Member States, in agreement with representatives of minorities, to continue to support and finance the collection of reliable and reliable data on equality issues in order to record inequalities and discrimination; calls for effective monitoring of the situation of national and ethnic minorities across the EU; takes the view that the FRA should step up monitoring of discrimination against national and ethnic minorities in the Member States;

23. Acknowledges the important role civil society and non-governmental organizations play in protecting minorities, taking action against discrimination and promoting minority rights; encourages the Commission and the Member States to seek adequate funding and support for these organizations;

24. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure the protection of minorities within minorities and to tackle inequality within groups that are treated differently, as people belonging to minorities tend to face multiple and intersectional discrimination; Calls on the Commission and the Member States to carry out research on the complex issue of multiple and intersectional discrimination;

Measures against discrimination, hate crime and hate speech

25. Is concerned about the alarming increase in hate crime and hate speech based on racism, xenophobia and religious intolerance and directed against minorities in Europe; Calls on the EU and the Member States to take stronger action against hate crime and discriminatory thought and behavior; Calls on the Commission and FRA to continue their work to monitor hate crime and hate speech against minorities in the Member States and to report regularly on individual cases and trends;

26. Unequivocally condemns all forms of discrimination on any basis, as well as all forms of segregation, hate speech, hate crime and social exclusion, and calls on the Commission and the Member States to clearly condemn and punish the denial of atrocities committed against national and ethnic minorities; Reaffirms the position it expressed in its resolution of 25 October 2017 on "Fundamental rights aspects of Roma integration in the EU: Combating antigypsyism"; Points out that all European citizens must be supported and protected equally and regardless of their ethnic or cultural origin; Calls on the Commission to create a European framework and calls on the Member States to develop their own national plans to combat xenophobic violence and agitation against persons belonging to minorities;

27. Stresses that Member States should work towards friendly and stable relations with one another and encourages them to have an open and constructive dialogue with neighboring countries, especially in border areas where several languages ​​and cultures may be spoken ;

28. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to carry out awareness-raising activities in order to raise awareness of diversity among the EU population and to support all forms of expression in which minority cultures appear peacefully; Recommends that the Member States include the history of national and ethnic minorities in their curricula and encourage tolerance in thought and action in their schools; Recommends that the Commission and the Member States introduce cultural dialogues, including but not limited to schools, on the various forms and expressions of hatred against minority groups; Recommends that the Member States ensure that the prohibition of discrimination and the history and rights of persons belonging to minorities are integrated as integral parts of all areas of their national education systems;

29. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to campaign against hate speech, to set up hate crime police units that are aware of the problems of the various minority groups and to train these units internally and to ensure that persons belonging to minorities: are equal before the law, have equal access to justice and enjoy equal procedural rights;

30. Believes that the Commission and the Member States must ensure that persons belonging to minorities can exercise their rights without fear; in this regard, encourages Member States to include compulsory lessons in human rights, democratic education and political literacy in the curriculum at all school levels; Encourages the Commission and the Member States to provide for compulsory training for public officials as they have an essential role to play in the proper implementation of EU and Member State law and are equipped to serve all citizens while respecting human rights; Calls on the Commission and the Member States to address intersectional discrimination both in their policies and through their funding programs;

31. Encourages the Member States, in the interests of building mutual trust, to set up national truth and reconciliation commissions to recognize and document the centuries of persecution, exclusion and ostracism of persons belonging to minorities; Calls on the Member States to clearly condemn and punish the denial of atrocities committed against persons belonging to minorities, and encourages the Member States to establish and celebrate important memorial days at national level for minority groups, such as the memorial day for the victims of the genocide of the Sinti and Roma; Encourages the Member States to set up institutions that illustrate the history and culture of minority groups and to provide these institutions with financial and administrative support;

32.considers it very important that minority groups participate actively and meaningfully in society, economy, politics and culture; therefore calls on the Commission and the Member States to develop strategies with both proactive and reactive measures based on actual and systematic consultations with representatives of minority groups, and to involve these representatives in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of at all levels including the local level To involve guided and general public programs and projects so that these programs and projects are truly inclusive and non-discriminatory;

33. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure that the directive on the application of the principle of equal treatment regardless of race or ethnic origin is fully and thoroughly implemented, applied and enforced and encourages them to campaign to raise awareness of anti-discrimination laws perform; Believes that Member States should ensure that penalties under this Directive are sufficiently effective, proportionate and dissuasive; calls on the Commission to closely monitor the implementation of this directive;

34. Regrets that the Council has still not approved the proposed 2008 Equal Treatment Directive; calls again on the Council to adopt its position on the proposed directive as soon as possible;

National and ethnic minorities

35.  

36. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to guarantee national and ethnic minorities equal opportunities to participate in political and social life; Encourages the Member States to adopt electoral systems and electoral laws that promote adequate representation of national and ethnic minorities; Calls on the Member States to take immediate corrective action to put an end to discriminatory birth certificate entries, non-discriminatory registration of persons belonging to minority groups in birth registers and to ensure that identity cards issued are non-discriminatory;

37. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to carry out a coherent analysis of current minority policies in order to identify strengths and weaknesses and to ensure that the rights of national and ethnic minorities are respected;

38. Calls on the FRA to prepare an opinion on how instruments to protect and promote the rights of persons belonging to national minorities can be put in place, following the judgment in case T ‑ 646/13 of the ECJ;

Cultural rights

39. Emphasizes that cultural activities are crucial in preserving the identity of national and ethnic minorities and that, in order to preserve diversity in Europe, it is particularly important to preserve the traditions of minorities and to shape artistic values ​​in the respective mother tongue; Notes that the preservation of the cultural heritage of minorities is in the common interest of the EU and the Member States; Encourages the Commission and the Member States to support, extend and promote the cultural rights of minorities;

40. Points out that understanding the term 'culture' is crucial in determining the scope of minority rights in this regard; Notes that culture in the broader sense corresponds to the sum total of tangible and intangible activities and achievements of a particular community that sets it apart from others; Stresses that cultural rights should include the right to participate in cultural life, the right to enjoy culture, the right to choose to belong to a group, linguistic rights and the right to protection of cultural and scientific heritage;

41. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to recognize the contribution of national and ethnic minorities to the cultural heritage of the Union, to intensify the dialogue with representatives of minorities and persons belonging to minorities, and to coordinate strategies and measures for lasting preservation and further development to identify and carry out their culture; Encourages the Member States to properly institutionalize normal procedures for the protection of cultural rights at national level;

42. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to involve and support national and ethnic minorities and the people who belong to them in promoting knowledge and skills necessary for the protection, preservation and development of cultural life Heritage is required and which is to be passed on to future generations; Encourages the Commission and the Member States to set up and maintain substantial cultural funds for persons belonging to minorities, both horizontally and vertically, in order to support the cultural life of minority communities in an effective, transparent and equitable manner;

43.  

44. Calls on the Member States and the Commission to ensure that the media can work independently, promote the use of minority languages ​​in the media and promote national and ethnic minorities in the licensing of media services, including the allocation of frequencies for TV and radio stations - to be considered; Calls on the Member States and the Commission to allocate adequate resources to organizations representing minorities in order to promote the feeling of belonging and identification with the respective minority and to familiarize the majority society with the identity, language, history and culture of the respective minority ;

45. Recalls that the public media have a fundamental role in the dissemination of such content, particularly in the context of democratic control by local or regional authorities; Urges the Commission to create the necessary legal and regulatory framework to ensure the unhindered provision, transmission and reception of audiovisual content in areas where minorities live, so that minorities can access content broadcast across national borders without geographical barriers (“geoblocking “) Can watch and listen to in their mother tongue;

46. ​​Calls on the Commission and the Member States to take appropriate measures to ensure that audiovisual media do not disseminate incitement to violence or hatred against persons belonging to minorities; Emphasizes that the media has an important role to play in reporting violations of minority rights and that, without relevant reporting, it would not be known what minorities actually face in everyday life;

47. Encourages the Member States to refrain from political and legal acts and measures aimed at imposing restrictive measures such as the requirement for subtitling or translation and mandatory quotas for programs in official languages; Encourages the Commission and the Member States to allow and promote the presence of media in the regional or minority languages, including on the Internet; Calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure that the organizations and media of national and ethnic minorities receive adequate funding or grants, taking into account their regional characteristics and needs;

48. Calls on the Member States, in the light of the European Year of Cultural Heritage, to enhance and promote the minority cultures represented on their territory, thereby helping to spread their history and traditions and ensuring that the communities concerned do not remain isolated;

49. Emphasizes that measures to protect cultural heritage should be inclusive, community-oriented and participatory, and should also include consultation and dialogue with the minority communities concerned;

right to education

50. Notes that education is a crucial element in socialization and identity formation and remains the most important tool for revitalizing and preserving vulnerable minority languages; Notes that all persons belonging to a national minority have the right to an education in a minority language; Stresses that the continuity of mother tongue education is essential for maintaining cultural and linguistic identity; Notes that, with regard to the teaching of minority languages, there is no general best practice that is applicable to all national and ethnic minorities; Notes that special attention must be paid to people who use sign language;

51. Reiterates that Article 14 of the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities recommends that the parties to the Convention endeavor, as far as possible and within their educational system, to ensure that persons belonging to national minorities have adequate opportunities have to learn their respective minority language or to be taught in this language without affecting the learning of the official language or teaching in this language;

52. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to take further action to establish appropriate instruments to facilitate the official use of languages ​​spoken by national and ethnic minorities in their settlement areas, at local or regional level, in accordance with the principles of the Framework Convention and the Charter of Languages ​​is promoted and supported, ensuring that the protection and promotion of the use of regional and minority languages ​​is not at the expense of the official languages ​​and the obligation to learn them;

53. Regrets that some Member States have not yet ratified the Language Charter and that some of those who have ratified it are still not effectively implementing it; is disappointed that existing rights are either not implemented or completely ignored in some Member States;

54.  

55. Encourages Member States to ensure that people whose mother tongue is a regional or minority language have the opportunity to learn the official language to a sufficient degree by incorporating good practice in foreign and second language teaching into the methodological approach used in the Teaching of the official language of the state is persecuted;

56. Emphasizes that people belonging to minorities should also learn the language, history and culture of the majority population and that pupils belonging to the majority population, as well as the general public, should be made familiar with and given the opportunity to learn about the history and culture of minorities should learn minority languages;

57. Encourages the Member States to support the development of textbooks that meet the needs of speakers of regional or minority languages ​​and, if this proves impossible, to facilitate the use of textbooks from other countries published in these languages, in cooperation with the education authorities of the countries where these languages ​​are in use;

58. Emphasizes the importance of higher education in the mother tongue and the training of professionals with knowledge of the technical terminology, especially in regions with a large number of speakers of the respective language; Stresses the importance of teaching doctors in minority languages;

59. Encourages the governments of the Member States to include representatives of minorities in discussions on the organization of the education system;

60. Encourages the Member States to set a threshold for the percentage of their total population should learn regional or minority languages ​​in order to ensure equal opportunities in education; Encourages the Commission and the Member States to advocate the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic minorities who live in areas with significant numbers of such minorities, including in rural areas or in areas with widely dispersed settlements, in a minority language - especially in their mother tongue - to be taught when there is sufficient demand; Calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure that the right to education in a minority language is not restricted by educational reforms and policies;

61. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to work to ensure that integrated support for minority and regional languages ​​is available in the education systems on the vertical axis of administration, in particular by setting up units in the Ministries of Education in the Member States and in the Commission responsible for integrating minority and regional language teaching into school curricula; Encourages Member States to promote a continuous curriculum for minority languages ​​from pre-primary to higher education;

62.  

63. Stresses that the teaching of minority languages ​​contributes to mutual understanding between majority and minority populations and brings communities closer together; Encourages the Member States to take constructive measures to ensure adequate representation of minorities in education as well as in public administration and executive agencies at national, regional and local level;

64. Encourages the Commission to give more support to programs that focus on the exchange of experience and best practice with regard to education in regional and minority languages ​​in Europe; Calls on the EU and the Commission to pay more attention to regional and minority languages ​​in the next generation of the Erasmus +, Creative Europe and Europe for Citizens programs in the new Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF);

65.  

Linguistic rights

66. Notes that language is an essential aspect of the cultural identity and human rights of minorities; Emphasizes that in areas where there are significant numbers of people belonging to minorities, the right to the non-discriminatory use of a minority language in both private and public spaces must be promoted, so that languages ​​can be passed on from generation to generation Linguistic diversity is protected in the Union; Calls on the Commission to step up its efforts to promote the teaching and use of regional languages, as this is a way of tackling language discrimination and promoting linguistic diversity in the EU; Points out that promoting the knowledge of minority languages ​​among people who do not belong to any of those minorities is a path to mutual understanding and recognition;

67. Emphasizes that it already took the view in its resolution of 11 September 2013 that the Commission should take into account the fact that some Member States and regions endanger the continued existence of certain languages ​​within their borders with their policies, even if these languages ​​are in the European context are not threatened; calls on the Commission to examine what administrative and legislative obstacles stand in the way of the use of these languages;

68. Notes that in addition to the 24 official languages, there are 60 other languages ​​represented in the European Union which are part of its cultural and linguistic heritage and are spoken by 40 million people living in certain regions or belonging to certain groups; Notes that the European Union, with its multilingualism, is unique among international organizations; Notes that the principle of multilingualism is enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which obliges the EU to respect linguistic diversity and to support Europe's rich linguistic and cultural heritage by promoting language learning and linguistic diversity;

69. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to allow and encourage the use of regional or minority languages ​​in practice, in relation to administrative authorities and public service organizations, in accordance with the principle of proportionality, for example in relationships between individuals and organizations on the one hand and authorities on the other hand; Encourages Member States to provide information and public services in these languages, including on the internet, in areas where significant numbers of people belonging to national and ethnic minorities are resident;

70.Encourages Member States to promote access to minority and regional languages ​​by funding and supporting translation, dubbing and subtitling activities, as well as to support the codification of appropriate and non-discriminatory terminology in administration, commerce, business, social affairs, technology and law ;

71. Encourages local authorities in the affected areas to ensure the use of regional and minority languages; encourages the Member States to use the best practices that already exist at national level as guidelines;

72. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to encourage the use of regional and minority languages ​​at local and regional level; with this aim in mind, strongly encourages local authorities to ensure that these languages ​​are used in practice;

73. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to ensure that in areas with a significant number of inhabitants belonging to national minorities, safety and security notices, important mandatory instructions and public notices of concern to citizens whether through State or private bodies, as well as place names and topographical designations are written in the correct form and in the languages ​​commonly used in a certain region, also on entrance and exit signs and all other traffic signs with information;

74. Notes that the perceptible representation of regional and minority languages ​​- on road signs, street names, names of administrative bodies, public and commercial institutions, etc. - is essential for the promotion and protection of the rights of national and ethnic minorities, as it shows and contributes to the fact that regional and minority languages ​​are in lively use, thereby encouraging persons belonging to national and ethnic minorities to make use of their particular linguistic identity and their linguistic rights, this identity and these Maintain and develop rights, express their multiethnic local identity and strengthen their sense of responsibility as members of groups in a local or regional community;

75. Calls on the Member States to refrain from or abolish legal practices that make it difficult for minorities to access the full range of professions in a given country; calls on the Member States to guarantee adequate access to legal and judicial services; Stresses that representatives of minorities should be made aware of the procedures to be followed under national law if their rights as a person belonging to a minority have been violated;

76. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to establish that anyone belonging to a national minority has the right to use his or her surname (patronymic) and given names in the minority language and the right to have those names officially recognized to concede, including in the context of free movement within the EU;

77. Encourages the Commission and the Member States to take measures to remove administrative and financial obstacles that could hamper linguistic diversity at European and national level and the exercise and enforcement of the linguistic rights of individuals, national and international belong to ethnic minorities, could be disabled; urges the Member States to put an end to linguistically discriminatory practices;

Conclusion

78. Calls on the Commission to establish a common framework with minimum standards for the protection of minorities; recommends that this framework contain verifiable requirements, the fulfillment of which is to be reported regularly, and contain at least the following elements:

- the development of guidelines reflecting best practice in the Member States, in collaboration with various stakeholders concerned with the protection of minority rights,

- a Commission recommendation taking into account existing measures at national level, as well as subsidiarity and proportionality;

- a proposal for a directive on minimum standards for minorities in the EU, based on the elements mentioned and setting clear benchmarks and penalties, following an adequate impact assessment and in accordance with the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality applicable in the Member States are;

79. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure that the framework includes data collection, as well as on-the-spot financial and quality control and reporting procedures, as these elements reinforce effective and evidence-based policies Can help improve the effectiveness of the strategies, actions and measures implemented;

80. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, the governments and parliaments of the Member States and candidate countries, the OSCE, the OECD, the Council of Europe and the United Nations.

(1)

OJ L 180, 19.7.2000, p. 22.

(2)

Texts adopted, P8_TA (2018) 0032.

(3)

Texts adopted, P8_TA (2017) 0413.

(4)

OJ L 328 of 6 December 2008, p. 55.

(5)

Texts adopted, P8_TA (2016) 0485.

(6)

OJ C 328, 6.9.2016, p. 4.

(7)

OJ C 93, 9.3.2016, p. 52.

(8)

OJ C 124 E, 25.6.2006, p. 405.

(9)

Texts adopted, P8_TA (2017) 0487.

(10)

Texts adopted, P8_TA (2016) 0409.

(11)

Texts adopted, P8_TA (2016) 0409.