Is the soul in the spirit
The ghost can as Association of the intellectual and mental abilities of a person To be defined. The human mind refers to the group of cognitive psychological processes, which include functions such as perception, memory, reasoning, etc. Depending on how the neurons in the different parts of our brain connect and activate, the mental abilities are more or less efficient.
Basic cognitive skills that shape what we call mind:
- attention: Attention is the basis for being able to communicate with the outside world and with ourselves. This ability makes it possible to concentrate on the stimuli in the environment in order to be able to react to them as a result.
- perception: Perception is the mental ability that makes it possible to interpret the information that one sees, hears, smells, tastes or feels. Thanks to perception, we give meaning to our environment and the body's own feelings.
- memory: The memory enables the integration, storage and retrieval of information from what has been experienced and learned. It is the ability to create and access memories.
- Logical reasoning (executive functions): The higher cognitive functions, such as logical reasoning, make it possible to generate hypotheses and solutions for problems that arise with the perceived stored information.
- coordination: Coordination is the ability to perform movements in an efficient, precise and orderly manner. Coordination is the mental function that enables us to interact effectively with our environment.
Forms of mental processes:
If you take into account the level of awareness you have about the mental processes, they can be divided into two groups:
- Conscious processes: These are the processes of the mind that we know about. We notice them and are aware that they are expiring. For example, it is a conscious process of the mind to recall the information learned for an exam. Because in order to carry out this process, we have to voluntarily and consciously recall a stored memory.
- Unconscious processes: Are all the mental processes that we are not aware of how to carry out. There are studies that show that physiological changes in the body (e.g. temperature) occur when a stimulus is presented to you for such a short time (milliseconds) that you are not aware of the presentation yourself. So although one is not aware of the presence of the stimuli, our mind reacts to them. An unconscious process of the mind would be, for example, the presentation of an unconscious advertisement: we do not know that we have seen the image of a soft drink, but we get thirsty and want to buy the corresponding soft drink.
Are the Mind and the Mind the Same?
How do body and mind connect? For these types of questions there is no one answer that will satisfy everyone equally today. The concept of the "mind" which dominates today has its origin in the French philosopher and natural scientist René Descartes. The thinker transformed Plato's idea of the "tripartite soul" into a unified concept of "spirit". He also located the interface between body and mind at a certain point in the brain: the pineal gland (nowadays it is known to be involved in regulating the heart rate). A key aspect of Descartes' theory is that the brain is undoubtedly connected to the mind. Even so, there is still no consensus on whether the brain and mind are the same. Some argue that there are two different terms that refer to the same thing, while others argue that the mind is the consequence of brain activity.
Strengthen and improve the mind
The mental or basic cognitive skills are the basis of the mental functioning. In the course of our lives, these skills develop depending on genetics and experiences. How can we improve the mind?Neuroplasticity allows the brain to adapt to the demands of the environment. This means that the development of cognitive skills depends on how you stimulate them. They develop either better or worse, depending on the individual possibilities.
CogniFit is a scientific program that is easy to use and measures up to 23 cognitive skills. The high precision of the evaluations enables the detection of damaged skills, which can then be trained using the personalized training programs of CogniFit. The assessments are based on various exercises that are presented in the form of games. This interactive format increases motivation of people who want to get to know their state of mind, which is of benefit to children, adolescents, adults and seniors.
Mental disorders and diseases are Changes in mental health that affect the well-being of the person concerned and / or loved ones. The main faults are in the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diagnostic and Statistical Guide to Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Society, APA) and the ICD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, published by the World Health Organization, WHO). Although the two classification systems are structured differently, the content is equivalent. In the following, the various mental disorders are considered according to their classification:
Mental disorders according to DSM-5
- Disorders of neural and mental development: These disorders encompass a wide range of changes that occur during child development and are characterized by deficits in adaptive behavior. The disorders grouped under this diagnostic category are intellectual impairment, communication disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific learning disorders, and motor disorders.
- Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders: The psychotic disorders are characterized by delusions, hallucinations, thought impulses, will influence, as well as loss of reality. These include schizotypic personality disorder, brief psychotic disorder, schizophrenia-like disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, substance / drug-induced psychotic disorder, catatonic disorders, etc.
- Bipolar and Allied Disorders : Bipolar disorder is characterized by a dysregulation of emotion control, which results in strong mood swings that are independent of the situation. This group refers to Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder II and Rapid Cycling, etc.
- Depressive disorders: These disorders are characterized by a depressed mood (strong sadness), lack of interest and loss of pleasure and low self-esteem. This group includes disruptive affect regulation disorder, major depression, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia and chronic depressive disorders), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, etc.
- Anxiety disorders: The anxiety disorders are characterized by strong physical activation, panic or a feeling of restlessness. This category includes separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, etc.
- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Related Disorders: Is an anxiety disorder that has two components: the obsessions (which generate fear) and the obsessions (which reduce fear). This type of disorder can occur in different contexts, and obsessive-compulsive thoughts can vary greatly (ideas, thoughts and intrusive impulses) as well as obsessive-compulsive actions (repetitive and stereotypical actions that try to reduce the generalized fear caused by obsessive-compulsive thoughts).
- Trauma and stress related disorders: Are disorders that arise after exposure to a traumatic or stressful event causing intense anxiety. They include, for example, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), etc.
- Dissociative Disorders: These are characterized by impaired perception, memory disorders, identity disorders or disorders of consciousness. This group includes dissociative identity disorder, depersonalization / derealization disorder and dissociative amnesia.
- Somatic stress disorder and related disorders: These disorders are characterized by a non-simulated pain or physical ailment for which there is no identifiable physical cause (or which does not explain the extent of the suffering). This group includes somatic stress disorder, conversion disorder, disease anxiety disorder and other / unspecified somatic stress disorders.
- Feeding and eating disorders: Characteristic of these disorders is a change in behavior with regard to food. These include, for example, anorexia nerviosa, bulimia nerviosa, pica, rumination and picky eating behavior, etc.
- Elimination disorders: Are disorders that typically occur in childhood in which an inadequate control of excretion prevails. These include disorders such as enuresis (wetting) and encopresis (defecation).
- Sleep-wake disorders: These are disorders in which the ability to regulate the sleep-wake rhythm is disturbed. These include insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea syndrome, etc.
- Sexual dysfunction: Are a group of disorders that affect the development of sexual relations. These include, for example, sexual arousal disorders, orgasm disorders, genital pain syndromes, etc.
- Gender dysphoria: This term is used when a person's gender identity does not match their biological gender and this creates suffering for the person.
- Disruptive, impulse control, and behavioral disorders: This category includes various changes in behavior and emotions that result in behavior that can endanger the well-being of others. Some of these disorders are conduct disorders, antisocial personality disorder, kleptomania or pyromania, etc.
- Disorders related to psychotropic substances and dependent behaviors: Refers to disorders caused by consumption or intoxication with a specific substance. This is the case with addictions to, for example, alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opiates, sedants, hypnotics or anxiolytics, stimulants, tobacco and other substances. This also includes addiction problems that are not dependent on the substance, such as pathological gambling.
- Neurocognitive Disorders (NCD): This category includes all types of changes that affect the correct functioning of various cognitive skills. These include changes such as delirium, Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease (frontotemporal dementia), Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia, a neurocognitive disorder due to a traumatic brain injury, neurocognitive disorders due to prion disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, a neurocognitive disorder due to HIV infection or a substance / drug-induced neurocognitive disorder, etc.
- Personality disorders: These are behavior patterns that are stable over time and are not adaptive to the person's environment. Personality disorders are ego-syntonic, which means that those affected perceive the symptoms as belonging to their ego and are therefore not necessarily aware of the disorder. Personality disorders include paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, etc.
- Paraphilic disorders: are recurring sexual desires and behaviors that do not necessarily have to have a disease value, but are associated with a person's suffering and are not socially acceptable or harm society. These disorders include voyeurism, exhibitionism, sadomasochism, pedophilia, fetishism, fetishistic transvestism, etc.
- Other mental disorders: This includes drug-induced movement disorders and other adverse drug effects, as well as other clinically relevant problems.
- Drug-induced movement disorders and other adverse drug effects: Disorders in this group are motor changes that occur as a result of drug use. This is the case, for example, with symptomatic Parkinson's Syndrome, which is triggered by medication. This also includes the malignant neuroleptic syndrome as a result of taking neuroleptics, drug-induced dystonia, SSRI withdrawal syndrome, etc.
- Other clinically relevant problems: Refers to a wide range of less specified disorders which, however, create an impact on the lives of those around them or those around them. The main disorders from this group are: abuse, attachment problems, rape and neglect, school and work-related problems, economic problems and residence problems, problems related to crime or the law, other problems related to the social environment, problems related to other psychosocial circumstances, personal or environmental problems, etc ...
Mental disorders according to ICD-10
- Organic, including symptomatic mental disorders: This group includes mental changes, the reasons for which are known. Examples include dementia (degenerative, vascular, post-encephalopathic, infectious, toxic, metabolic, neoplastic, diet-related, chronic inflammatory disorder), non-substance-induced delirium and other mental disorders that are due to a lesion or dysfunction of the brain or a somatic disease arise.
- Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychotropic substances : Refers to the use, abuse and dependence of psychotropic substances such as alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. This also includes poisoning or overdose with substances.
- Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders : These are disorders that change perception, thoughts and emotions. Although mental abilities are usually intact at the onset of the disorder, cognitive deficits appear as the disease progresses.
- Affective disorders: Includes all disorders, the main symptom of which is mood changes, which can range from depression to high mood to euphoria. This is the case, for example, with bipolar disorder or other forms of depression.
- Neurotic, stress and somatoform disorders: Are the psychological illnesses that trigger organic changes. This group includes somatoform disorders, phobias and other anxiety disorders, but also obsessive-compulsive disorder.
- Behavioral problems with physical disorders and factors: These categories include behavioral problems that involve physical factors, such as eating disorders or non-organic sleep disorders.
- Personality and behavior disorders: In this group, the disorders are summarized, the symptoms of which are relatively stable over time and which result in certain behavioral patterns associated with the characteristics of the person.
- Intelligence disorder: This includes all forms of intellectual disability.
- Developmental disorders: Are disorders that without exception begin in childhood and have a steady course without remission and are closely linked to the biological maturation of brain functions.
- Behavioral and emotional disorders beginning in childhood and adolescence: Are emotional and behavioral disorders that have their onset in childhood or adolescence.
- Unspecified mental disorders: this includes all mental disorders without further details.
With a lot of these changes a deficit occurs in various cognitive areas. It is important to emphasize that cognitive stimulation and rehabilitation are a good complement to therapy, since this can reduce the deficits.
The psychology is the ultimate discipline that deals with the exploration of the mind. Although psychiatry and philosophy are also concerned with this field, there are various branches of psychology that focus their research on this unknown area.
In the early days of psychology, representatives of the Psychoanalysis the existence of a dynamic subconscious mind related to the concept of mind. However, psychoanalysis did not pursue any scientific methods and thus only has non-scientific theories about the mind.
Later supporters represented of behaviorism (behavioral psychology) the view that the mind cannot be scientifically investigated. They focused their investigations on observable behavior, ignoring the underlying processes of the mind.
The cognitive psychology ended up trying to make the mind work with the help of computerized models to explain, which form an important basis for research in this area. In contrast to currents such as psychoanalysis or behaviorism (behavioral psychology), the cognitive psychology the mental processes to study the mind in a scientific way.
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