What are massive igneous rocks

Igneous rocks (igneous rocks)


Overview:

- Igneous rocks (igneous rocks)

- 1. Igneous deep rocks (plutonites)
granite
Charnockite
Granodiorite
Diorite
Gabbro
Anorthosite
Peridotite
Syenite
Alkali isenite
Monzonite
Foyaite
Essexit

- 2. Igneous effluent rocks (volcanic rocks)
Rhyolite
Rhyodacite and Dacite
Andesite
basalt
Dolerite
Diabase
Melaphyr
Picrit
Trachyte
Latite
Phonolite
Alkali basalt
Tephrite and Basanite
Nephelinite and leucitite
Tuff



Igneous rocks (igneous rocks)

Igneous rocks are divided into two subgroups - the Deep rocks (plutonites) and the Effluent rocks (volcanic rocks) . There are no stratifications or foliations to be seen, but they are often cracked. The different grain sizes of the minerals are mostly of the same size. Large grain sizes (from 0.06 mm) are usually deep rock, whereas very fine grain sizes are poured rocks.

Chemically, these rocks consist mainly of silicon, the second most abundant element on earth. The salts and esters of silicon (silicates) change when they cool down from over 1000 ° Celsius.

Igneous rocks such as granite are characterized, among other things, by their high degree of hardness. They are among the hardest materials ever. But they are also extremely resistant to acids. Quartz ensures the strength, feldspar determines the color, biotite influences the susceptibility to weathering.


Due to their hardness, igneous rocks such as granite can only be machined with very special diamond tools. These properties offer you the opportunity to equip floors indoors and especially outdoors that are to be exposed to extreme loads. Handicrafts or the everyday preparation of food while cooking, which leaves unsightly marks on some surfaces, cannot harm granite. Igneous rocks such as granite are, in addition to their durability and resistance, very diverse in terms of their appearance and of attractive beauty and elegance. That is why it is used more and more frequently in a wide variety of areas.
The following are the chemical compositions and optical distinguishing features of the Deep rocks ( granite , Charnockite , Granodiorite , Diorite , Gabbro , Anorthosite , Peridotite , Syenite , Alkali isenite , Monzonite , Foyaite , Essexit ) and the Effusion rocks ( Rhyolite , Rhyodacite and Dacite , Andesite , basalt , Dolerite , Diabase , Melaphyr , Picrit , Trachyte , Latite , Phonolite , Alkali basalt , Tephrite and Basanite , Nephelinite and leucitite , Tuff ) are detailed in terms of their appearance, composition and areas of use.

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1. Igneous deep rocks (plutonites)

Deep rocks are of particularly high quality in terms of their technical properties. They are used both indoors and outdoors. They should only be laid using plastic-modified adhesives. In addition, a sealing slurry must be applied to the back of light-colored materials to avoid discoloration and falsification of their color image, etc. Otherwise, the teeth of the adhesive bed are often visible after laying. You will find detailed information on the subject of laying natural stone here .

Gray deep rock can turn yellow due to mineral changes after laying. Yellowish types of stone turn slightly red when the surface of the natural stone flames.

Rock types with a low quartz content (gabbros and syenite) are not as abrasion-resistant (polish-resistant) as the other igneous rock types. Laying on highly polished types of stone in heavily frequented areas should be avoided here.

Deep rocks are pressed volcanic rock. Like metamorphic rocks, they arise in the depths of the earth's crust when lava cools under high pressure. Deep rocks are distinguished on the basis of their material inventory, which is relatively easy to understand visually.

The following are the chemical compositions and optical distinguishing features of the Granites , Charnockite , Granodiorite , Diorite , Gabbros , Anorthosites , Peridotites , Syenite , Alkaline isenites , Monzonite , Foyaite u. Essexite detailed in terms of their appearance, composition and areas of use.

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Granites can be seen very easily. Like all plutonites, granites are holocrystalline and have a directionless structure. Their structure is mostly medium to coarse-grained and not dark, as they mainly consist of light minerals.
Granites are acidic, leucocrates, deep rocks. It consists mainly of the light (rockic) mixture parts alkali feldspar (30-65%), plagioclase (<= 30%), quartz (15–40%), and the dark (mafic) mixture part biotite (up to 10%). In addition to mica biotite, muscovite often occurs (two-mica granite!), Occasionally amphibole and, more rarely, pyroxene. Pyroxene-bearing granites Charnockite called.
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Charnockite are greenish gray and that granite very similar. They have a medium to coarse-grained microstructure, which because of their common occurrence with Norites and Anorthosites to the igneous rocks. Originally they were defined as special types of hypersthene granulite. In addition to alkali feldspar and quartz, the mineral inventory of light Charnockites also includes plagioclase and pyroxene (hypersthene). Occasional appearance of garnet indicates metamorphic overprinting.
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Granodiorite are light to dark gray in color and match the appearance of Granites very similar. However, their mineral components are darker and their structure is mostly medium to fine-grained.
Granodiorites are leucocrates. It consists mainly of the mixture parts plagioclase (30-50%), alkali feldspar (10-30%), quartz (15-30%), biotite and hornblende (5-20%). Compared to granite, granodiorite has more plagioclase than alkali feldspar, the proportion of which is down to 10%. With the increase in the volume fraction of plagioclase, the content of dark mixtures also increases, such as biotite and / or hornblende and, in rarer cases, augite. Because there are smooth transitions to granite, it is often not possible to clearly differentiate between granite and granodiorite on the sample.
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Diorite are determined in their color image by their gray-green to almost black mineral components. Their microstructure is usually small to medium-grained.
This mesotype deep rock consists mainly of the mixed parts plagioclase (30-60%) and hornblende (20-35%).
Alkali feldspar and quartz are mostly absent or together they make up less than 5% of the total volume of the rock. Diorites contain biotite and ore minerals such as ilmenite and magnetite as secondary components. Diorites richer in quartz have the name Quartz diorite or Tonalite.
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Gabbros have slightly darker mineral components than Diorite . The color palette of the gabbros ranges from white-gray, black-gray, greenish-gray, brownish-green, dark green to olive-green. They are usually medium to coarse-grained in their microstructure. Gabbros are a basic, mesotypic to melanocrates deep rock.
The main part of the gabbro consists of a mixture of plagioclase (40-70%) and pyroxene (15-45%). Olivine can be up to 30%. Quartz occurs only rarely and when in small amounts (0-5%). Ore minerals such as magnetite, magnetic gravel and ilmenite are frequently occurring by-products.
A variation of the gabbro are the Norit and Hyperite. They contain rhombic pyroxenes from bronzite to hypersthene. The Gabbro Group also includes the Anorthosites .
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Anorthosites belong to the group of Gabbros at. Their color is light to dark gray and they have a labradorising (iridescent) play of colors with a mostly coarse-grained structure.
The anorthosites are hololeucocrate deep rocks and consist of calcium-rich plagioclase (> = 90%). Pyroxene and ore minerals occur as side-effects.
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Peridotites are black and have a medium-grain structure.
They are ultra-basic, holomelanocrate deep rocks and consist mainly of the mixture parts pyroxene (5-30%) and olivine (40-90%). However, the olivine is mostly converted into serpentine. Secondary batch parts are ore minerals such as magnetite and chromite.
A variation of the peridotite is the Dunite. The dunite consists of more than 90% olivine.
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Syenite have a medium to coarse grain structure and are very different in their appearance. However, one can easily distinguish them from the other igneous rock types by their very low quartz content (always <5%) and the conspicuously shimmering rock spades in the labradorites. Since the mineral components, which appear white to milky gray, are usually more pronounced in the other igneous rock types, they can be more easily distinguished from them. The colors of the syenites range from gray-red, red, brownish-gray, greenish-gray, gray to dark gray.
Syenites are mesotype deep rocks and consist mainly of the mixture parts alkali feldspar (50-90%) and amphibole (<= 20%). The components plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite, foide (nepheline) and quartz together always make up less than 5% of the total volume. The components magnetite, apatite, zirconium and titanite occur as a secondary mixture.
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Alkaline isenites belong to the main group of Syenites and mostly have a coarse-grained and directionless microstructure. The colors of the alkaline isyenites are gray to bluish gray. They have a labradoric play of colors.
Their mixture consists largely of hypidiomorphic alkali feldspar (anorthoclase) and pyroxene. The quartz content of this type of rock is less than 5% of the total volume. A variation of the alkali isenites is the larvikite (90% anorthoclase) from southern Norway.
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Monzonite mostly have a medium-grain structure. Their basic colors range from reddish to gray to shimmering greenish.
These mesotypical deep rocks consist mainly of the mixture parts plagioclase (40-60%), alkali feldspar (15-35%), hornblende, pyroxene and biotite (together between 10 and 20%). Monzonite possesses in comparison to Syenite more plagioclase than alkali feldspar.
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Foyaite have a medium to coarse-grain structure and are blue with light colors and greyish-brown crystals.
The mesotype to melanocrate deep rock is quartz-free and has mainly the mixture parts alkali feldspar (20-70%), pyroxene (5 -50%) and the foids nepheline, leucite and sodalite (20-40%). The nepheline-rich variant of the foyaite is called nepheline syenite (gray with white tints and dark gray to black crystals) and has more under-silicas than alkali isenite.
If the main part is excreted foide (feldspar representatives), then arise Foidolites which are regarded as an independent family of rocks, but are very similar in appearance (color and rock structure) to the Foyaites.
Foyaites and foidolites are not acid and alkali-resistant because of their foids content and are therefore not suitable for outdoor work.
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Essexite have a rich to dark gray, medium to coarse-grained structure.
The deep rock consists mainly of the batch parts plagioclase (25-35%), alkali feldspar (10-15%), nepheline (about 10%) and pyroxene (30-40%). In rare cases, the minerals amphibole, biotite and olivine also appear.
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2. Igneous effluent rocks (volcanic rocks)

Cast rocks are very similar to deep rocks in their technical properties and their classification is also based on their mineral components. However, due to their smaller block sizes, they are only available in correspondingly smaller formats and are therefore more difficult to sample. In addition, the optical assignment is made more difficult by the smaller grain sizes of the structural structures of the effluent rocks.
The frequently occurring and completely different sprinkles cannot be avoided in the effluent rocks and are part of their characters.

The following are the chemical compositions and optical distinguishing features of the Rhyolite , Rhyodacite and Dacite , Andesite , basalt , Dolerite , Diabase , Melaphyr , Picrit , Trachyte , Latite , Phonolite , Alkali basalt , Tephrite and Basanite , Nephelinite and leucitite u. Tuff detailed in terms of their appearance, composition and areas of use.

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Rhyolite (Quartz porphyry / porphyry) corresponds in its chemical composition to Granites . Visually, the porphyry can be distinguished by its clearly visible insets made of alkali feldspar, plagioclase and quartz. In their training they are bulky or flat.
The rhyolites have red, red-gray and red to gray-violet colors.
Rhyolites are effluent rocks, the basic masses of which can be holocrystalline or wholly or partially glassy. Their mixture consists of the same parts that also occur as insects in the rocks.
When they reach the surface of the earth, rhyolite melts have a temperature of 950 - 750 ° C.
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Rhyodacite & Dacite are effusion rocks with a light to medium gray, reddish color. They are equivalent to the quartz-rich diorites Quartz diorite / tonalite and Granodiorites . In their dense matrix there are intrusions of plagioclase and quartz. Your mixed part consists mainly of hornblende.
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Andesite are red-brown and gray cast rocks. They are equivalents of diorite and contain the main mixture of high-sodium plagioclase and hornblende. Their intruders consist of plagioclase, hornblende and biotite.
Central European andesite is also known under the name porphyrite.
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basalt O. Tholeiite basalt (Tholeiite / feldspar basalt) is dark gray to black in color. Its structure is very fine-grained and dense. Coarser-grained tholeiite basalts are called Dolerite . Basalt is an alkaline effluent rock and consists of the main components of augite and calcium-rich plagioclase.
Similar to porphyry, it has inserts made of plagioclase and pyroxene, which, however, appear greenish or brownish. Other parts of the mixture are ore minerals and often olivine. In terms of its chemical composition, it is of the deep rock Gabbro very similar.
Basalts are difficult to grout because of their very porous surface and a so-called sunburn effect sometimes occurs after grouting. The sunburn effect is understood to mean an increase in volume and the associated partial breakdown of the material.
Basalts do not have a high resistance to abrasion (resistance to polishing) and, when polished, are not suitable for work in highly frequented areas. Basalts with olivine content are not acid-resistant and therefore not suitable for outdoor use.
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Dolerite is a variety of effusion rock Tholeiite basalt . However, it is coarse-grained in its microstructure. The dolerite is the intermediate link of tholeiite basalt (feldspar basalt) and Gabbro .
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Diabase are dark green to black green, dense to medium-grained and often slate-shaped. Coarse-grained diabase have bulky feldspar ridges in the structure. The green cast rock diabase is original tholeiite basalt table Composition.
The formation of epidotes in the feldspars, the formation of chlorite and secondary horn bladders from the augites is due to the greening of the diabase. This process is called anchimetamorphosis and is a preliminary stage to metamorphosis.
Due to its feldspar sparrows, this natural stone often has a porphyry structure. The rocks Diabase and Melaphyre are in the so-called. Paleobasalts summarized.
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Melaphyre are black, purple and reddish brown. They have a dense to fine-grained structure, often also porphyry. The effluent rock is melaphyr tholeiite basalt table Composition. The rocks Melaphyre and Diabase are summarized in the so-called paleobasalts, but unlike the diabase, melaphyres do not show any greening.
Melaphyres very often have bladder cavities. These cavities are filled with minerals such as calcite, delessite (similar to chlorite), quartz and chalcedony (agate).
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Picrite (Paleopicrites) are dark gray to black in color and have a fine to coarse grain structure. Pikrites are holomelanocrates, ultra-basic effusion rocks. They often have a porphyry structure.
Picrit is composed in its main mix parts of the minerals olivine (mainly converted into serpentine) and clinopyroxene (augite) and subordinate orthopyroxene (bronzite), hornblende and biotite. Mixtures that also occur are apatite, magnetite and chromium spinel. Use: solid work.

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Trachyte is light gray to reddish and has a typical porphyry structure. Trachyte is an effusion equivalent of Syenite and often has a porous and therefore rough surface. Their basic masses contain the crystals sanidine (alkali feldspar) and sodium-rich plagioclase (oligoclase). Trachyte also contains black prismatic horn diaphragms or biotite, in rare cases also augite.
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Latites are light to medium gray natural stones and have a fine-grained to dense structure. The related effluent rocks of the Andesites are an equivalent of Monzonites . The parts of their main mix are plagioclase, sanidine and pyroxene. Side effects are hornblende and biotite. In the base mass there are insects made of plagioclase, sanidine and pyroxene.

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Phonolites are brownish, gray to greenish-gray and have a dense to fine-grained, often porphyry structure. The effluent rock consists of alkali feldspar (mostly sanidine), nepheline and other foids. The content of nepheline causes the characteristic greasy shine of these natural stones. In addition, they mostly contain augite rich in soda. The Einsprenglinge like the basic mass are formed by these mixed parts. Often there are also horn apertures in the form of black prisms and thin-plate phonolites as inserts.
Phonolites are only acid-resistant to a limited extent. They should therefore be tested for acid resistance when working outdoors.
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Alkali basalts ( Tephrite and Basanite ) are red-brown to black-gray in color and usually have a dense to fine-grained, sometimes porphyry microstructure. However, they also occur in large-pored, porous-vesicular structures and are then called "Basalt lava".

The melanocratic effusion rocks differ chemically only in their higher alkali metal content Tholeiite basalt . The main components of the mix are above all sodium, aluminum, silicon and foids.
Alkali basalts are in the olivine-free rock types Tephrite and olive leading Basanites assigned. Have coarser-grained microstructures like the Tholeiite basalts the designation Dolerite .

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Tephrite and Basanite are dark, red-brown to black-gray cast rocks and have a dense to porous structure.
Tephrites consist of the main mixture parts plagioclase, foide (leucite, nepheline), pyroxene and amphibole.
Basanites consist of the main mixture parts plagioclase, foide (leucite, nepheline), pyroxene, amphibole and olivine with a content of more than 10% of the total volume.
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Nephelinite & Leucitite are dark gray to black cast rocks and have a dense to porous structure. However, they also occur as varieties in large-pored, porous-vesicular structures and are then called "Basalt lava" . Nephelinite and Leucitite are equivalents of the Foidolites .
The mixed parts of the nephelinites and leucitites largely contain no feldspar. Nephelinite and leucite almost exclusively contain nepheline or leucite as light and only pyroxene as dark mixture parts.
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Tuff is a solidified volcanic ejecta. It has widely varying grain sizes and different mineral compositions. Tuff stones appear in grayish, greenish, yellowish, reddish and purple colors.
A distinction is made between, for example, andesite tuffs, basalt tuffs, diabase tuffs, phonolite tuffs, rhyolite tuffs, trachyte tuffs, etc.
Diabastuffe, which are often developed in slate form, form the main part of the Scarf stones of the Devons of the German low mountain range.
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