Is Pakistan jealous of ISRO
Dynamic Libraries: Access, Development and Transformation
The 81st IFLA General Conference was held from August 15-21, 2015 in Cape Town, South Africa, the World Library and Information Congress. In this article, colleagues from the German National Library report on the events of the Preservation, Bibliography, Cataloging, Classification and Indexing, Information Technology and National Libraries sections and the Conference of Directors of the National Libraries.
From 15 to 21 August 2015, the World Library and Information Congress, the 81st IFLA General Conference and Assembly took place in Cape Town, South Africa. In this article, colleagues from the German National Library report on the events of the sections conservation of collections, bibliography, cataloging, classification and indexing, information technology and national libraries as well as on the conference of the directors of the national libraries.
From the events of the Preservation, Bibliography, Cataloging, Classification and Indexing, Information Technology and National Libraries Sections and the Conference of Directors of National Libraries at the World Library and Information Congress, 81st IFLA General Conference, in Cape Town
Also this year the participants of the IFLA conference were enthusiastic in every way: perfect organization of the conference with extremely friendly, volunteer helpers, exciting meetings, interesting lectures and poster presentations, fantastic food, perfect "winter weather" at 20 degrees and bright sunshine, Cape Town's location on the Table Bay of the Atlantic Ocean, its distinctive landmark, Table Mountain, and its Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, located on the eastern slope of Table Mountain, which is considered one of the most beautiful botanical gardens in the world.
At the World Library and Information Congress from August 15 to 21, 2015 with the theme "Dynamic Libraries: Access, Development and Transformation" around 3,190 people took part. Over 1,400 participants came from South Africa alone, followed by the USA with 285, Namibia with 114 and Germany with around 100 participants.
The opening ceremony really got the participants going. When asked, “Are you ready for the hard work?”, Hundreds of librarians danced to “Your love burns me like a hell fire” under the guidance of a group of dancers.
The congress reporting before, during and after the congress is no longer via the tried and tested IFLA Express - which was no longer printed but distributed digitally - but via social media. For example, news with short messages, photos and videos are continuously distributed via Twitter and Facebook.
In addition to the previous scholarships for young professionals, an orientation scholarship for experienced professionals was also offered this year by BI International and the Professional Association of Information Library (BIB). This orientation scholarship is intended for colleagues with more than ten years of professional experience who have never participated in a conference outside of Germany and should explain their motivation in a letter. A total of four scholarship holders were selected from the applications. The German scholarship recipients wrote their own blog posts on interesting topics every day and, this time too, promptly provided for their local colleagues who could not be there in Cape Town.
All reports from Cape Town available online are via the BIB website linked.
At the closing event in Cape Town, in addition to the handover of the presidency from Sinikka Sipilä to Donna Sheeder, the location for the World Library and Information Congress in the year after next was announced: In 2017 the IFLA conference will take place in Wroclow (Breslau), Poland.
Cape Town Declaration
Shortly before the start of the IFLA World Congress 2015, ministers and government representatives from Angola, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Cape Verde, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, South Sudan and Swaziland met on August 14th 2015 in Cape Town. The importance of libraries and how access to information should be implemented was discussed.
IFLA President Sinikka Sipilä was represented, as were John Kgwala Tsebe, President of the African Library & Information Associations & Institutions (AfLIA), and librarians from other countries.
The group discussed the status of African libraries and what further action is necessary to sustainably meet the global development goals. The resulting document is the “Cape Town Declaration”: http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/wlic/2015/documents/cape-town-declaration-of-ministers-de.pdf.
New strategic direction: IFLA develops strategic plan for 2016–2021
IFLA is also preparing strategically for the next few years. The direction in which the international library association wants to go was presented at the 81st Library Congress in Cape Town and discussed by delegates from all over the world in the various committees. The strategy should show four broad directions: strengthening the importance of libraries in society, access to information and knowledge through libraries, safeguarding the cultural heritage and strengthening libraries as recognized and important partners in the political, economic and social environment.
Each of these four strategic directions will be discussed in detail for the period 2015/16 through various key initiatives. The aim is for the new strategic plan to be adopted after the discussion phase for 2016 and to lead the association's activities and discussions over the next few years until 2021.
Libraries: a call to action
To be successful in a rapidly changing world, libraries and information professionals must take advantage of the benefits and opportunities presented by current trends. The event with the motto "Libraries: A Call to Action" by the new IFLA President Donna Sheeder on August 20, 2015 began with short keynote speeches from the USA, Namibia, Singapore and Uruguay on the national strategies and tactics used to ensure that libraries are included in national development plans, copyright and other issues. Subsequently, at different tables (divided into the world regions Africa, North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and Asia / Oceania), the common challenges to be mastered at the national level and what support IFLA can provide were discussed. Donna Sheeder will host other events and activities to implement the motto during her presidency.
IFLA Committee on Standards
German member: Ulrike Junger (German National Library, as representative of the Conference of Directors of National Libraries / CDNL)
Committee website: http://www.ifla.org/standards-committee
The task of the Committee on Standards (CoS) is to coordinate the work with standards inside and outside IFLA and to support the standardization activities in the IFLA departments, especially the Sections. The broad definition of the CoS by IFLA standards includes things as diverse as conceptual models, rules for describing resources, digital formats, guidelines or best practices.
Patrice Landry (Swiss National Library, Bern), who had been very committed to establishing the CoS in recent years, handed over the chairmanship to Jan Richards (Central West Libraries, Orange, Australia). In the two sessions during the conference, the CoS dealt with reports from various working groups that maintain and further develop IFLA standards, e.g. B. the ISBD Review Group or the FRBR Review Group. Further topics were a revision of the “IFLA Standards Procedure Manual” and the structuring of the relationships with other bodies that set standards, e. B. ISO. Since the IFLA conference in Lyon in 2014, a number of drafts for new or revised IFLA standards have been drawn up; the IFLA School Libraries Guidelines have been published in a revised second edition.
The Standards Committee also organized a lecture program that was well attended with 300 participants. Patrice Landry, founding chairman of the panel, said in his introduction that the meeting also served to address the question of what influence IFLA standards have on work in libraries around the world and how cooperation with other standardization bodies could and should be structured .
A new course of business is to be established for IFLA standards, which is documented in the “IFLA Standards Manual” and provides clear guidelines for the creation and revision of standards. This includes a clear coordination process with the higher-level Professional Committee, as well as quality assurance and regular evaluation of the relevance of standards.
Patrice Landry reported on a study he carried out, the answers inter alia. should answer the question of whether and which IFLA standards are used and which services and products are based on them. The review of literature and the analysis of downloads of standards from the IFLA website yielded some interesting findings, such as: B. that IFLA standards are mainly in demand in Europe and the USA. Of approximately 79,000 downloads in the last 28 months, one fifth of the downloads related to bibliographic standards. Older documents are also still of interest, e.g. Take the Conspectus model from 2001, for example. This raises the question of how outdated standards should be dealt with and whether a regular review of all standards is sensible and feasible. In any case, the usage should be evaluated regularly.
Lars Svensson from the German National Library dealt in his article entitled “Our standards vs. their standards: development and re-use of non-library standards on the cultural heritage domain” with the question of the interactions and relationships between library rules and norms and non-librarian standards there. Based on the fact that libraries (should) increasingly exchange their data with the outside world, issues such as interoperability are increasingly coming to the fore. Svensson advocated that libraries should work with the bodies that set standards for the Internet, such as: B. the W3C, but also the OGC / Open Geospatial Consortium. At the same time, they should work harder than before to ensure that their data is not only machine-readable, but also clearly interpretable for computers. Only in this way can the data make a meaningful contribution to the Semantic Web. Using a few examples, he showed that there is still room for improvement. For example, the Resource Description and Access (RDA) set of rules does not follow the relevant ISO standard with regard to the regulations for the recording of dates. However, what people capture must be made machine-readable and transformed according to the standard.
Agnese Galeffi (Vatican Libray School) presented a survey on the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). The ISBD is a comparatively old standard that has been successful since 1971 with 23 editions and is available in ten languages. The answers from 44 countries showed that the ISBD is mainly used to structure bibliographic data for display in catalogs, but hardly for the actual development work, which is increasingly being done in accordance with the RDA. A need for revision is seen for the ISBD, which is also aimed at better compatibility with other norms and rules. The necessity for the ISBD has also been called into question in view of fundamental technical changes over the past 40 years. Agnese Galeffi nevertheless sees a future for the ISBD.
Chris Oliver (McGill University, Montreal, Canada) opened up a glimpse into the future in her contribution "IFLA’s conceptual models: impact and evolution". After a brief outline of the development history of this family of concepts for the modeling of development, she reported on the various efforts to harmonize the FR models (FRBR, RDAD, FRSAD) on the one hand with concepts specifically from the museum sector, and on the other hand on the incongruities between the three Eliminate FR models themselves and consolidate them. The FR has gained a huge impact in recent years, changing the way we think and talk about data. The cooperation with the museum world, which resulted in the creation of the FRBRoo, also provided valuable insights for the library world. B. an expanded understanding of the description of events.
The work of the FRBR Review Group, which has been in existence for a number of years, recently focused on eliminating incongruities between FRBR, FRSAD and FRAD. For the FRBR, people are always real people, while the FRSAD can also include fictional people. These and other problems are to be solved by formulating a coherent and logical abstract model, the so-called Library Reference Model. The basic approach of the FRBR of subdividing according to work-expression-manifestation-item is retained. There are changes in the entities, their attributes and relationships. The effects on the FRBRoo must then be examined as well as those on RDA, the ISBD and the International Cataloging Principles (ICP).
The next article dealt with a more tangible topic - Gaëlle Béquet, Director of the International ISSN Center in Paris, reported on the 40-year success story of the International Serial Standard Number, ISSN (Interaction between IFLA Standards and other library standards: ISBD, RDA , UNIMARC and ISSN: a long-lasting relationship). In her lecture she gave an outline of the history and development of this standard, which goes back to an agreement between UNESCO and IFLA. The development of the ISSN standard reflects on the one hand the development of the medium of ongoing resources in its various forms of media due to the continuous expansion of its scope and on the other hand is characterized by the constant harmonization with other norms and regulations and the corresponding cooperation with the respective committees. So was z. For example, in addition to the harmonization of the ISSN regulations and AACR and later RDA, the PRESSoo model was developed together with the FRBR Review Group, which takes the peculiarities of ongoing resources into account better than the FRBR.
A contribution from Iran continued the very varied lecture program of the Committee for Standards. Fatemeh Pazooki (Alzahra University of Iran) reported on a very specific use of various IFLA standards (A comparison of the condition of Iranian public libraries with the IFLA standards). As part of a study, the recommendations given by individual standards were compared with the conditions in the Iranian public library system, i.e. benchmarking was carried out. See z. For example, the IFLA Public Library Service Guidelines stipulate that two to three media works per inhabitant should be kept in public libraries; the average value in Iran is significantly lower. The same applies accordingly to magazine areas, user workstations or library staff. Ms. Pazooki concluded from this that Iranian public libraries should be better equipped. The IFLA standards can be used as a guideline for this.
The last lecture turned to a topic that at first glance does not have anything to do with standards. Heather Moulaison and Edward Corrado (University of Missouri, Columbia, USA) dealt with the question of what is behind the discovery systems now used by many libraries (What is driving discovery systems?). Typical elements of a discovery system are a search interface with a single search slot, a central index created by the manufacturer, large amounts of evidence data, especially for electronic publications, a relevance ranking and a faceting of the search results.
As a rule, however, it is not clear what is indexed how and according to which criteria the relevance ranking is designed. However, this has a significant influence on the findability of documents and thus their perception by users. Moulaison and Corrado therefore advocated transparency in this area. They presented the Open Discovery Initiative (ODI), which is working on relevant standards. ODI is looking for cooperation with providers of discovery systems and content with the aim of obliging them to a corresponding level of transparency and has thus achieved initial successes. The speakers appealed to libraries as buyers of resource discovery systems to ask the providers to do the same.
German member of the Standing Committee of the Section: Anke Meyer-Heß (2009 - 2017, German National Library)
Section website: http://www.ifla.org/bibliography
The section deals with the content, structure, production, distribution and maintenance of bibliographic information, primarily - but not exclusively - related to national bibliographies.
The main area of work of the section from 2012 to 2015 was the publication: "Best practice for national bibliographic agencies in a digital age" . The website http://www.ifla.org/node/7858 was officially launched for IFLA 2015 in Cape Town.
In addition, the section is building an extensive register of national bibliographies.
For the 2015-2017 term, Miriam Naurie (National Library of Sweden, Stockholm) was elected as the new Chair of the Section. Anders Cato (Danish Agency for Culture, Copenhagen) was elected Secretary.
The section's open program became the theme this year „National bibliographies transformed: matters relating to the legal deposit of electronic resources ”. The program consisted of four lectures that dealt in different ways with the effects of the mandatory deposit of electronic resources on national bibliographies.
The first speaker was Denise Nicholson (University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg) from South Africa, who reported on the extension of the South African compulsory deposit law to include electronic resources. In South Africa there have been various types of compulsory deposit since 1842, which have resulted in large collections of printed material from books, magazines, newspapers, maps, films, sound recordings, etc. in the various compulsory deposit libraries. In 1997, a new South African law on compulsory deposit was passed, which was expanded to include digital objects. To ensure compliance with the law and, more importantly, to ensure that the cultural heritage of South Africa is permanently preserved, the Ministry of Arts and Culture has set up a permanent committee on compulsory submission. This committee advises and assists the minister on a number of issues in order to ensure compliance with the legal deposit and permanent access to South Africa's rich cultural heritage.
Edita Lichenbergová (National Library of the Czech Republic, Prague) reported on the development of the Czech National Bibliography. Like so many national bibliographies, this one also has a long tradition. From the beginning of the bibliography to the present day five different sets of rules have been used for cataloging. A wide variety of materials have also been collected over the years. In the last few years a lot of effort has been put into completing the bibliography. The aim was to get as comprehensive a picture as possible of the world of publications in the Czech Republic and also to record things that do not fall under the Legal Deposit Act. Coverage has been greatly improved through various collaborations. The catalog is the national bibliography. All records are managed in a single database, which also acts as the general catalog for the Czech Republic.
The following measures have been taken to improve the coverage of this catalog: All data records that were made available before 1900 were re-cataloged to improve their findability. The catalog also serves as a register for all digitized works in the Czech Republic. Every digitized work must be listed there and given a national bibliography number. This ensures that works are digitized only once and can be reused by others. A wide range of different digital resources is now also being delivered. With an “e-deposit tool”, publishers can report the ISBN of new works, including electronic works, directly to the library and then use the same tool to submit their publications when they are published.
Stina Degersted from the National Library of Sweden (Stockholm) reported on the generation of metadata for digital materials. The new Swedish law on the compulsory filing of electronic documents came into force on January 1st, 2015. It challenges the National Library of Sweden (NLS) to collect and manage a vast amount of documents in a variety of media forms from thousands of publishers. In order to process the masses of material, a high degree of automation in data processing from acquisition through validation, migration to archiving is necessary, while at the same time the best possible metadata quality is to be guaranteed. For this purpose, NLS has developed various new electronic systems and workflows. All metadata are automatically incorporated into the Swedish Libris catalog, which in future will be based entirely on linked data.
Mathilde Koskas (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) reported on the French compulsory deposit law for e-books and its influence on the national bibliography. The French law covers websites and online publications as well as e-books, but does not contain any obligation to produce a bibliography in the traditional form; a simple indexing is sufficient according to the law. But despite their innovative properties, e-books are still books and their bibliographic metadata is more similar to that of printed materials than the indexes of web archives. A separate workflow was set up for the collection of e-books, which re-uses the publisher's metadata in Onix format.
German member as a corresponding member of the Standing Committee of the Section: Renate Behrens-Neumann (2015–2019, German National Library)
Section website: http://www.ifla.org/cataloguing
Miriam Säfström (Swedish National Library, Stockholm) was elected as the new chairman of the Standing Committee of the Cataloging Section, Hanne Hørl Hansen (Danish Library Center, Copenhagen) as Secretary and Agnese Galeffi (Vatican School of Library Science, Vatican Office) as information officer. The most important topic in the two meetings of the standing committee was the reporting on and discussion of the consolidation of the various functional requirements models. Chris Oliver (University of Ottawa Library, Ottawa, Canada) was confirmed as Chair of the FRBR Review Group.
FRBR Review Group
Chair: Chris Oliver (McGill University Libraries, Montréal, Canada)
Group website: http://www.ifla.org/frbr-rg
Much of the work of this group lies in bringing together the different terms for entities and the different concepts of the models FRBR, FRAD, FRSAD. The Working Group is working on defining uniform terms and designations and on publishing a revised version of the entire model. In addition to the Review Group, an Editorial Working Group was set up in 2013. This group should write down the editing of the changes to the model.
In the period between IFLA in Lyon in 2013 and IFLA in Cape Town in 2014, the Editorial Working Group presented the results of all review rounds of recent years in a new model, the FRBR Library Reference Model summarized.
The lecture by Pat Riva and Maja Žumer gives a good overview of the model: „Introducing the FRBR library reference model ", which was held in the open program of the Cataloging Section.
In the revision of the model, the basic entities work, expression, manifestation and item have been retained and new entities or entities from the FRAD and FRSAD models have been added:
Tab. 1: The new FRBR Library Reference Model.
|Res||Any entity of the subject area||Redefined from FRSAD: Topic|
|agent||Any entity that can have a responsible relationship with another entity.||New: upper class for people and groups|
|person||A human being||FRBR|
|Group||A collection or organization of people||new (includes the entities family and corporate body)|
|noun||Any character or string by which an entity is known||Summary of FRSAD: noun and FRAD: name and controlled access point (contains the type identifier)|
|Place||A spatial expansion||Adapted from FRBR: Place|
|Period of time||A temporal expansion with a beginning, an end and a duration||New|
In addition to the entities, the attributes have also been greatly simplified and generalized. The relationships between the entities have not changed much. The user requirements have been completely taken over from the original FRBR model and expanded to include the requirements “Exploring: Using the relationships between a resource and another resource to put them into context”.
The further procedure provides for the following steps: The text will be published in autumn 2015 as part of a global commenting process and then revised accordingly.
Further lectures from the open program of the Cataloging Section
Ricardo Santos reported in his lecture "Datos.bne.es: a LOD service and a FRBR-modeled access into the library collection" via a data representation based on FRBR and based on a linked data model.
Datos.bne.es was first launched in 2011 as a data service for the Spanish National Library. In November 2014, a new beta version was launched that contains a wider range of data and an innovative search and ad interface that is intended to appeal to general users. The data display and organization are based on FRBR, which is fed from data in MARC21 format. His lecture focused primarily on the user guidance on the surface and the reactions of users to the offer.
In his lecture "A basic introduction to FRBRoo and PRESSoo", Patrick Le Boeuf gave a very good introduction to the object-oriented models FRBRoo and PRESSoo. FRBRoo is based on the FRBR, FRAD and FRSAD models, while PRESSoo is an extension of FRBRoo for continuous resources. The lecture dealt mainly with the construction of the models and gave examples for the transfer of FRBR into FRBRoo.
While FRBR is based on entities, FRBRoo uses classes. The FRBR entities Work, Expression, Manifestation, and Item become the classes in FRBRoo. These classes are not identified with clear names such as “specimen”, but with random strings of characters as identifiers. “Copy” is given the identifier “F5” in the model. Individual books or individuals belonging to a class are referred to as instances in this model. Another important difference between FRBR and FRBRoo is the concept of inheritance. The introduction of superclasses and subclasses means that all properties of a superordinate class are inherited by the subclasses. The class “F22 Self Contained Expression” is a subclass of “F2 Expression” and inherits all properties of the superordinate class. Properties are all relationships between the classes, such as: B. an “F23 Expression Fragment” is part of an “F2 Expression”. In contrast to FRBR, there are no attributes with FRBRoo. All characteristics of a class are expressed through relationships (properties) to other classes, which of course means that the number of classes in FRBRoo is many times greater than the number of entities in FRBR.
Niels Ruppelt from the City of Cape Town Library spoke about "Towards an FRBR compliant catalog: prospects for the City of Cape Town Public Library Management System". He reported that the information system used in the Cape Town City Library, which originally came from Belgium, enables FRBRization during cataloging, but that this is only used for current cataloging using a tool, as retrospective incorporation of the four FRBR levels is too costly would have been. He emphasized the dependency for such a step on the one hand on the software providers and on the other hand on the partners with whom the city library works and from whom it receives data.
News Media Section
German member of the Standing Committee of the Section: Susann Solberg (2015–2019, German National Library)
Chairman of the section: Douwe Drijfhout (Director Preservation Services, National Library of South Africa)
Section website: http://www.ifla.org/news-media
From the standing committee
The News Media Section, which emerged from the Round Table for Newspapers in 2003, has in recent years expanded its range of topics beyond the focus on traditional newspapers to include news media of all types and forms of presentation. Every year she organizes satellite or pre-conferences, open sessions at the respective IFLA WLIC and, as a focus of her work, a further symposium as a so-called midterm conference.
This year's conference "Transformation of the online news media: implications for preservation and access" took place from April 15 to 16 at the invitation of the Swedish National Library in Stockholm. The day before, the Center for Research Libraries (CRL) together with the news media section for the conference “Framing a Common Agenda for Newspaper Digitization and Preservation: An ICON Summit ”. The basis for the discussions were two studies published in advance by the CRL on the state of newspaper digitization in the USA and Europe and a proposal for an accreditation scheme for assessing the sustainability, data integrity and consistency of repositories of digitized historical newspapers , The latter taking into account the DFG rules of practice for digitization. The aim was to get an overview of the international newspaper digitization and to determine procedures for a better coordination of future non-commercial and commercial projects in this area. The results were presented in a report released.
Between lions, zebras and antelopes, international experts met at the invitation of the South African National Library for the section's satellite conference near Pretoria, from August 12th to 13th, 2015 under the topic of “Newspaper e-publishing trends: the stewardship role of libraries “To discuss digitization and archiving issues, especially in African libraries. The program was supplemented by a one-day workshop on best practice in newspaper digitization. The section also held two digitization workshops in India and Malaysia.
The conclusion for all events is very positive. Due to the positive response to the digitization workshops, these should continue to be offered. Initially, two more workshops are being prepared in Africa.
For 2016, the section is planning its annual conference under the title “Preserving and providing access to newspapers and news media” from April 20-22, which will take place at the invitation of the Carl von Ossietzky Hamburg State and University Library. In addition to topics such as collection, long-term archiving and making newspapers and digital news media accessible through libraries, retro-digitization, services based on digitized newspaper stocks, data mining, etc., but also the news business in the age of digital and social media will be dealt with.
A satellite conference will be held in Lexington, Kentucky ahead of WLIC 2016 in Columbus, Ohio, USA. An open session is also planned again, which is to be carried out together with the Information Technology Section and / or the Conservation and Conservation Section (PAC).
In addition, an international survey on copyright law in digitized and originally digital news media is to be carried out.
Against the background of the growing demand for evaluation options for large amounts of text and data, there is growing interest in providing large OCR packages. It was discussed whether establishing a core set of information could facilitate access to copyright-free material from various data sources via APIs (Application Programming Interface). This question is to be pursued in cooperation with the information technology section.
The news media section is a small section. New members are always welcome!
“Local - African - Global: the Dynamics of News Media and How Libraries Cope with it” was the theme of this year's Open Session of the news media section.
In the opening lecture “News media digitization at the National Library of South Africa”, Londeka Dlamini from the National Library of South Africa (NLSA) gave an overview of the NLSA's digitization policy and programs. Books, magazines, newspapers, maps, photographs, and newspapers include. Dlamini particularly highlighted the Black Press project, in which historical newspapers that were neglected during apartheid are digitized in various native languages.
Susanne Gellert from MICROBOX GmbH, Germany, informed about various business models for the digitization of newspapers in her lecture "Newspaper conversion for digital applications". It was a.from cooperation between libraries and service providers, with the service provider participating in the financing, to a business model of the British Library in which the service provider pays for the digitization himself, is responsible for marketing the content and finances itself through the income.
Ulrich Hagenah from the Hamburg State and University Library Carl von Ossietzky informed in his lecture "Newspapers in German language - progress in digitization and accessibility" about the current status of German digitization projects and strategies. Due to the federal, decentralized structure, there is no central coordination in Germany. Hagenah describes the activities of the regional and state libraries, the German involvement in the Europeana Newspaper project and emphasizes the importance of the DFG pilot project newspaper digitization, the aim of which is a master plan for newspaper digitization in Germany. As part of the DFG project, the magazine database (ZDB) was further developed as a control and verification tool for newspaper digitization projects and newspapers in Germany, which became clear with a few examples for search and presentation. There is still no common platform for the identification of digitized historical newspapers in Germany. According to Hagenah, this gap could possibly be filled by the German Digital Library (DDB). His conclusion is cautiously optimistic with regard to the DFG master plan for newspaper digitization expected for 2016.
In her lecture “From historical newspaper to e-newspaper: Challenge for libraries” Krista Kiisa from the National Library of Estonia described the change in the Estonian newspaper landscape. Due to the very good coverage of Estonia with Internet access, around 84% of Estonians use the Internet. More and more readers are therefore switching from the classic paper daily newspaper to news websites. Kiisa reported on the various approaches of the national library, which on the one hand digitizes historical newspapers as a Europeana participant and makes them freely available up to the year 1944 and on the other hand currently harvests the four most important news websites on the first file level, as well as newspapers as e-papers collects or offers publishers to deliver prepress. In the case of newer or current titles, the National Library tries to negotiate a release of the titles for external web access with the publishers, taking into account a blocking period of a few weeks or months.
Ana Krahmer from the University of North Texas Libraries, USA, gave her talk on "PDF preservation in the Texas Digital Newspaper Program" in a remote session. The Texas Digital Newspaper Program works with a variety of partners in library and publishing, historical and genealogical societies, and universities. As part of the program, historical and current Texan newspapers from the early 19th century to the present day are digitized and made available. Krahmer described how the request from a small publisher that also offers its newspapers in PDF format was the impetus for developing a workflow for collecting e-paper newspapers in PDF format and for this in particular to small publishers and institutions as to offer a cost-effective alternative to microfilming and digitization.
James Simon from the Center for Research Libraries (CRL), USA, also presented his lecture on "Access to print, digitized, and born-digital newspapers from Africa: The North American / global conundrum" as a remote session. Simon reviewed the extensive collections of African news media held in North American institutions such as the Library of Congress and the CRL, both in print and on microfilm. As a result of serious budget cuts, the collective profile and the number of titles had to be drastically reduced in recent years. As a consequence, electronic offers in particular are preferred due to their topicality and accessibility. Numerous African news media are still in print, and the same applies to their provision in libraries. Result of the 2013 study "African Newspapers Online" carried out by the CRL Among other things, the number of online news services or newspapers appearing in Africa and the occurrence of articles from African newspapers in international news services are currently low. As a result, cuts in the print and microfilm collections can currently only be compensated to a very small extent by African online offers (original or digitized). For a sustainable improvement in access to current and historical African news, Simon pleaded in the field of digitization, licensing of online offers and webharvesting for better strategic and financial coordination and cooperation between African libraries and beyond.
“Preserving Kentucky's newspapers: analogue beginnings to digital frontier” was the topic of Kopana Terry and Eric Weig from the University of Kentucky Libraries, USA, who are hosting the next satellite conference of the news media section before WLIC 2016. They described the The 50-year history of the Newspaper Preservation Program at the University of Kentucky Libraries (UKL), which began as the pioneering story of a historian and library director driving through Kentucky armed with microfilm cameras, lights, and tripods dreaming of getting all of the state's newspapers. The dream came true and today it has turned into a successful newspaper conservation program. Newspaper microfilming has meanwhile been replaced by the digitization of historical newspapers and today UKL mainly works with “Paper Vault”, a predominantly automatic workflow for collecting and archiving current newspapers in electronic form, which was explained in the presentation.
The lecture by Deborah Thomas from the Library of Congress (LC), USA, about the great possibilities of using Chronicling America made a little jealous using the example of the education sector. Chronicling America is a website operated by LC, which provides information on American newspapers from 1690 to the present day and offers the search for and viewing of around 10 million digitized pages of historical newspapers from 1836 to 1922. Chronicling America is funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress under the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP). In the presentation "Voices and viewpoints: uses of historical news for education and outreach", Thomas impressively demonstrated the benefits such large quantities of digitized and searchable historical newspapers can have. So from this fund z. For example, based on the current curriculum, teaching materials for individual school hours, entire curricula or thematic packages on historical events (e.g. the struggle for the right to vote for women) have been developed and made available to teachers free of charge. Teachers and schools only have to register, communication takes place via social media such as Twitter, Facebook, etc. Genealogists and historians are also explicitly addressed, who also use this data source intensively. It is open data and its use is supported by numerous tools and standards made available.
Classification and Indexing Section
German member of the standing committee of the section: Ulrike Junger (2013–2017, German National Library)
Section website: http://www.ifla.org/classification-and-indexing
The work of the section serves the exchange about methods of content indexing on an international level. The standardization and uniform application of procedures for classificatory and verbal content indexing by institutions that generate bibliographic data should be promoted, as should the use of content indexing data. Members of the standing committee work e.g. B. in the FRBR Review Group. Maja Žumer (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) was confirmed as chairperson, as were Sandy Roe (Illinois State University, Normal, USA) and Harriet Aargaard (National Library of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden) as information officers. The discussion about changing the name of the section, which began in the previous year, has not yet produced a final result. There is a wish that the aspect of the use of content-related data (subject access) should be found more strongly in the name. As always, the two working sessions of the section during the conference were determined by regular agenda items such as receiving reports from the working groups, preparing for upcoming conferences and discussing the 2015/2016 action plan. In the coming year, the section is planning its own satellite conference again, probably on the topic of automatic content indexing.
The lecture program of the Classification and Indexing section this year was dedicated to the topic of "Dynamic subject access: evolution and transformation". The introductory lecture was given by Thomas Hickey (OCLC, Dublin, USA). Under the title “Managing derived entities”, he presented various services and projects from OCLC that enrich WorldCat or were generated from data from WorldCat and are based on it. This included the WorldCat Works, a service that provides metadata for works as linked data and is an example of the so-called WorldCat Entities. With the FictionFinder, the records for various output forms for works are structured according to the data model of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. FAST was also presented, a project in which the precombined keywords in the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) were broken down into their individual components. These so-called FAST headings, which are structured as authority records, can be used for a faceted search and enriched with links to other databases. Geographical keywords can be provided with links to GeoNames.
Malarvele Ilangovan (National Library Board of Singapore, Singapore) reported on a project which, with the help of thematic indexing and presentation, should not only make it easier for users to access the collections in Singapore's public libraries, but also make them more attractive. Accordingly, the title of their presentation was “The next step - makeover from accessible collections to attractive collections”. This should be achieved by grouping the literature into simple and intuitive categories. To this end, various content indexing systems were initially considered in a project, including: the DDC, but also BISAC, a system used in the book trade. User surveys on the most popular topics and categories were also evaluated. So users want z. B. easy access to media works dealing with design. As a result, clusters of literature were formed, which are represented by corresponding icons on the back labels of the media, with the DDC classes used up to now also being displayed on them. The corresponding information was also fed into the OPAC.
The next lecture also dealt with easier access to resources. Marie Balíková (National Library of the Czech Republic, Prague) reported on a project by various Czech cultural institutions: "Facilitating access to cultural heritage content in Czechia: national authority files and INTERMI Project". The project aims to create an infrastructure for knowledge-based access to cultural heritage. This requires a Semantic Web-enabled modeling of data to represent entities such as families, events, etc. These entities can be linked to one another through relationships and linked to resources from libraries, archives and museums.
The last presentation of the program came from the African continent. Eno J. Ottong and Felicia Edu-Uwem Etim (both University of Uyo, Nigeria) reported how access to and use of digital resources can be improved by indexing them. Accordingly, the title of their lecture was: "Subject metadata development and awareness for digital resources in the University of Uyo Library". B. a repository has been established. With funds from the World Bank, the library has acquired a number of digital media works that are to be used on an interdisciplinary basis. In order to make it easier to find these and other media works, a separate keyword vocabulary was developed on the basis of the Library of Congress Subject Headings, the Uniuyo Subject Headings (UUSH), which also takes local peculiarities into account. The content of the holdings of the Uyo University Library is now comprehensively indexed in the electronic catalog using this vocabulary. At the end of their presentation, the speakers reminded listeners from more developed countries that a continuous supply of electricity, access to the Internet and knowledge of how to use computers are not a matter of course everywhere and that they affect projects like the one described.
Information Technology Section
German member of the Standing Committee of the Section: Lars G. Svensson (2015–2019, Chair, German National Library)
Section website: http://www.ifla.org/it
This year, too, the ITS had prepared an extensive program. On August 13 and 14, 2015, a satellite meeting on “Transforming libraries with open digital technologies” took place at the University of Stellenbosch. The use of Open Source Software (OSS) is widely recognized as an attractive alternative for e.g. For example, we have seen libraries in developing countries that cannot pay a license fee for commercial systems, or for libraries that have to operate on a tight budget. Since some African libraries are now using OSS for various tasks, the satellite meeting should give the opportunity to discuss the advantages and disadvantages, experiences with implementation and various areas of application for OSS in libraries.
On the first day, three tutorials were offered, one on open source software, one on using DSpace for institutional repositories, and one on research methods and tools for digital libraries. The second day highlighted the use of OSS and Open Access (OA) from different aspects. Many IT managers have now realized that it makes perfect sense to take OSS into account when choosing a system. Almost all speakers pointed out, however, that the elimination of license fees for the software does not mean that there are no costs associated with it. As with commercial systems, the cost of hosting, training, customization and support had to be considered and it was important to calculate the total cost of ownership. The second session examined the value proposition of open technologies. The combination of OSS and OA in particular can have a major impact here, as OSS repositories for OA publications can be easily networked with one another and OA publications are cited significantly more frequently in social media. In the last session, the case studies presented showed the great importance of an established user community for the selected system, especially in those cases when a deficient ICT infrastructure makes it necessary to set up decentralized systems and thus each institution has to create its own pool of knowledge for system maintenance .
2015 is the year of the election and thus the Standing Committee of the IT section has new members and also elected new officers. The new Chair was Lars G. Svensson (Germany), the new Secretary May Chang (USA) and the new Information Coordinator Astrid Verheusen (Netherlands). Important decisions were the expansion of the strategic planning, in which now also explicitly on the needs and voices of women and disadvantaged groups (disadvantaged communities) during the implementation of IT systems, the establishment of a new Special Interest Group (SIG) for Big Data and the renaming of the Semantic Web SIG to Linked Data Outreach SIG in order to distinguish it from the newly founded Linked Data Technical Subgroup (LIDATEC) who, as the successor to the IFLA Namespaces Technical Committee, is to advise the Committee on Standards in matters of namespaces and linked data for IFLA standards.
Overall, the sessions and the SIG meetings were well to very well attended. In addition to the Satellite Meeting and the SIG Meetings, the ITS was involved in a total of five sessions, with topics ranging from “10 Years of development to collect, preserve and access web sites: Ready to go for everyone !?” and “Technology facilitating access to information: libraries supporting development "to" Technology for multi-institution co-operation: aggregating, sharing and collaboration "to a knowledge café about" Preservation and access challenges (PACS) for government and parliamentary information ".
National Libraries Section
German member of the Standing Committee of the Section: Renate Gömpel (2013–2017, German National Library)
Section website: http://www.ifla.org/national-libraries
The section deals with the full range of tasks of the national libraries.She works closely with the Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL) and supports the National Information and Library Policy (NILP) Special Interest Group and the National Organizations and International Relations (NOIR) Special Interest Group of IFLA.
Guy Berthiaume, Librarian and Archivist of Canada, Library and Archives Canada, and Genevieve Clavel-Merrin, Swiss National Library, were elected as the new chairman. Melita Ambrožič has been confirmed as information coordinator by the National and University Library Ljubljana, Slovenia.
The grid of the current functions, tasks and roles of the national libraries (“Guidelines for National Libraries”), which is now filled with twelve national libraries, ensured extensive discussions in the meetings of the committee. The grid is now being converted into an easy-to-fill questionnaire in order to achieve global participation by the national libraries. The result is intended to serve as a guide, especially in those countries that do not yet have a national library.
The section's open program was under the motto “Dynamic national libraries - Innovating to progress national information and library policy”.
"The twain shall meet: 10 Years of evolution and innovation at Library and Archives Canada" was the title of a lecture by Guy Berthiaume from Library and Archives Canada. More than ten years ago, Library and Archives Canada became one of the first institutions in the world to integrate the services and functions of a national library and a national archive. The vision behind it was a new form of knowledge organization through which the information needs of the 21st century will be more likely to be satisfied. Since then, LAC has undergone constant redefinition, from the initial stages of transformation to modernization and strategic realignment. LAC is now starting from a new focus that is outwardly directed and sees collaboration and access as key factors. The merger of the two institutions has presented unique opportunities and challenges. LAC's approach to their key activities has evolved from acquiring and manipulating records, to providing services, to developing hybrid professionals. The greatest challenge was to strike the right balance, taking into account the different professions and collections, and to integrate the various resources and skills. LAC tested a number of innovative methods: offering standardized services both in person and online; the provision of information in a world where the differences between printed and digital are becoming increasingly blurred; the establishment of a coherent digital infrastructure and a strategic approach to the collection for LAC on three levels: private, published and government-issued publications.
Aslak Sira Myhre, National Library of Norway, reported in his article "Being the National Library for five million people: Creating the idea of the library for the whole century" how the massive transformation of public libraries is taking place Will change the tasks of the National Library. Due to the increasing occupation of people with social media and thus occupation in the here and now, conventional services such as lending books are no longer in demand. Collections are to be activated to tell why we have become what we are today. Such landscapes can be created by building digital collections. The public libraries are given a new role in the “social media world”: no longer as a tried and tested educational facility that procures and lends books, but as a flexible, multiple cultural and event location, offering places of knowledge, social meeting places and arenas for debate. In order to give the public libraries freedom from their previous tasks, the Norwegian National Library is to be responsible for the infrastructure of a national digital library with digital access for the public libraries in the future, for example.
Jos Debeij, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Netherlands, was able to directly follow up on this in his lecture “New legislation for public libraries in the Netherlands and the new role for the Koninklijke Bibliotheek”. The Koninklijke Bibliotheek has also been given a new function in the course of a new law for public libraries and the amalgamation of the institutions previously responsible for public libraries. Both the changed user behavior due to the Internet and the resulting decline in the number of users and loans, as well as the economic crisis have led to changes in the function of the public library. In the eyes of many politicians, the lending library has come to an end; the public library has a more varied, broader role to play. To make this possible, the Koninklijke Bibliotheek has been given a new central, national function in addition to its previous tasks: In addition to taking over the public library system, it is building up the Dutch digital public library, including the implementation of the EU directive on accessibility. This is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. A four-year strategic plan is the basis for implementation.
In her lecture “Strategic positioning of the National Library of South Africa (NLSA) as a change agent in social cohesion and nation building”, Rocky Ralebipi-Simela, National Library of South Africa, impressively presented the current tasks of the South African national library Years of democracy and the framework of the National Development Plan 2030, the focus has changed from a traditional national library with an offer for a (white) minority to an authority of the Ministry of Art and Culture with a service for the entire population. The clearly expressed responsibility for social cohesion and nation building is the source for the development of the South African National Library beyond the year 2030. South Africa's 2030 vision aims for a renewed country in which the “rainbow” is lived, where people are there for one another and where one another is cared for, where home, homes, villages, towns and cities are safe and filled with joy. The South African National Library has launched targeted core and support programs and runs, for example, the Center for the Book in Cape Town, a unique, far-reaching program to promote reading culture in all South African languages. According to Rocky Ralebipi-Simela, the library is on stable ground and well on its way to mastering the many challenges. The staff, as a key resource, understands and appreciates the enormous responsibility for citizens that Parliament has given them. It ensures that the library's collections accurately reflect the culture and experience of citizens and that citizens have optimal access to information nationally and internationally for their own development and enjoyment.
Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL)
On August 18, 2015, as part of the IFLA Congress, the annual CDNL conference took place in the Center for the Book of the National Library of South Africa, attended by around 80 directors from national libraries from 47 countries. For the procedure and presentations of the conference, see http://www.cdnl.info/index.php/cdnl-2015-annual-meeting-cape-town.
Core Activity Preservation and Conservation (PAC) and Preservation and Conservation Section
German member of the Standing Committee of the Section: Reinhard Altenhöner (2015–2019, German National Library until September 2015)
Section website: http://www.ifla.org/preservation-and-conservation
Alenka Kavčič-Čolić from the National and University Library Ljubljana was newly elected as chairwoman; Becky Ryder, head of the privately maintained but publicly accessible Keenland Library in Lexington, USA, became the secretary. Marwa El Sahn from the Egyptian Bibliotheca Alexandrina was appointed Information Officer.
Usually, many of the committee meetings take place before and after the actual conference - this was also the case this year: The Standing Committee for Preservation and Conservation met for the first time on August 15, 2015; the second meeting followed on August 18th. The Preservation and Conservation Advisory Group, responsible for coordinating the PAC centers (currently 14 centers worldwide with mostly regional tasks in the field of conservation), met on the first day.
At the meeting of the Standing Committee, the presence of a large number of observers made it clear what great importance digitization has in the perception of conservation: Many questions and interests revolved around this topic, especially in Africa, where the preservation of sources by digitization is becoming increasingly important ('indigenous culture'). Another phenomenon is the organizational development of the preservation of holdings in the libraries: more and more often, preservation and digital preservation are merged in order to have a holistic perspective on the topic and its design in specific processes. Here, too, the integration of digitization into the stock of methods for preservation is a driving motive. In other libraries, the technical cohesion of the topic is ensured, at least conceptually, by the fact that there are corresponding voting committees that decide, in particular, on the allocation of funds for maintenance activities.
Another important focus of the session was IFLA's key activities within the broader cultural heritage strategy. IFLA's activities at the strategic level were presented and discussed: Under the main theme of cultural heritage, maintaining permanent access to it plays a crucial role. If a society wants to understand its cultural roots permanently, it needs secure access to the material. This is not just about protecting cultural artefacts from natural or man-made disasters, but also about spreading the idea that investing in measures helps preserve the existing, access to information and knowledge, a basic requirement of the Lyon Declaration, to secure. The Lyon Declaration from 2014 forms the IFLA platform, in particular for the UN's discussion of the “Post-2015 development agenda”, which is likely to include key messages from IFLA.
Specific activities of IFLA relate to the expansion of the already lived cooperation with UNESCO, the international Blue Shield group (IFLA is one of the co-founders here) and the professional associations ICOM, ICOMOS and ICA. In close cooperation, a gap that exists in the library sector is now to be closed: While appropriate approaches to a “risk register” already exist for museum objects, something like this is missing in the library sector. For this reason, after more than a year of preparation and testing, the IFLA drew up the “IFLA risk register” at the congress.
Finally, another activity relates to participation in the UNESCO project PERSIST, which aims to establish a long-term cooperation between various partners in the field of digital preservation. The point of contact here in the cooperation with software manufacturers (especially Microsoft) is the disclosure of format specifications and the provision of information as well as the implementation of an idea for a technical platform for the use of outdated file formats. It is also about generally accepted rules when dealing with digital objects, be it when they come into the collection or when they are kept usable over long periods of time. Here the review of the “guidelines” that the project has just published will continue to occupy the Standing Committee.
An important focus of the deliberations in the Standing Committee was the planning of the program for the upcoming World Congress, which will take place in Columbus, Ohio, USA. A satellite meeting is already firmly planned, which will take place in the premises of the Library of Congress (LC) and which will deal with the appropriate structural and technical accommodation of material (i.e. cultural heritage) using the example of the LC; Analogue and digital material are considered here equally and put into context. At the same time, aspects of magazine construction should also be covered; therefore cooperation with the relevant IFLA library construction section is planned.
The discussion in the Standing Committee resulted in a thematic focus for the so-called "open session": This is about the quality management of maintenance activities, especially in the mass process. Organization, tools and systematic documentation are key words on which contributions are expected that show how cultural heritage institutions cope with increasing demands (with resources generally not increasing equally). An important point of contact in this environment are standards, compliance with and regular monitoring of which is an important element of process-oriented inventory maintenance. The abandonment of the workshop or manufacture-oriented inventory maintenance is reflected in certain processes such as mass deacidification or mass digitization. Working title of the planned event: "Quality management and preservation in the age of mass processing".
Another activity planned by the Section concerns the updating and reassessment of standards. Namely, the fact that the maintenance of the inventory includes a wide variety of tasks, procedures and methods makes the relevance of standards and the continuous coordination of them indispensable. This applies to both conservation and digital conservation. This is followed by the planning of a further activity of the Standing Committee: Standards applied in practice and experiences with them should be systematically compiled and presented in the form of a best practice overview. It is hoped that this will also enable the outdated overviews on the IFLA homepage to be updated. Compared to this status, an added value is also sought in that the employing institutions act as providers of experience who make their implementation knowledge available. It makes sense to organize an IFLA project, especially for the documentation and evaluation of the surveys; this should be formulated as a proposal in the next two months.
One idea that was discussed in the Standing Committee is an information platform for trainings / programs / seminars etc. This is linked to the hope of bringing together reusable formats and materials and thus of earlier activities of individual committee members / IFLA members in the area of management in the In the event of a disaster (examples: Haiti, Mali). In the area of digital preservation training, the good experiences of individual members of the Standing Committee who have already carried out such training can be used. It is now planned to set up a training program on the fringes of the IFLA World Congress in 2017, if necessary. Finally, the aim is to expand working contacts with archives and museums in the area of preservation in order to correspond to the central efforts of IFLA.
PAC Advisory Board
In the corresponding above The session was about exchanging ideas and forming opinions on the various IFLA activities on the one hand, but also about realigning the previously established structure of the individual centers on the other. In the future, not only regional aspects (in the sense of looking after certain geographical areas) should be taken into account here, but also thematic focal points. It is hoped that the combination of central technical competence on the one hand and the regional expert networks on the other will make the PAC centers more effective overall.
Another body activity is IFLA's new Cultural Heritage Program Advisory Committee. This is intended to provide strategic advice to the Governing Board and the Secretary General of IFLA. Above all, the aim is to network the various activities in the sections and other organizations of IFLA, particularly in the area of conservation, and to align them overall with IFLA's strategic priorities. This is why some of the members of the committee come from the IFLA bodies, but external parties such as UNESCO are also represented. The topics of the first meeting on Wednesday, August 19, 2015, were the Preservation and Conservation (PAC) Center network and its expansion, various collaborations that IFLA already maintains today, and questions of possible expansion, ongoing activities and future fields of action as well Considerations for the further specification of the "IFLA Strategic direction no. 3: Cultural heritage".The “IFLA risk register” presented in Cape Town is of particular importance, a new initiative in which institutions collect information on their unique collections so that they can act more quickly in the event of a crisis. For security reasons, the data is not freely accessible and is carefully curated; Here too, the new committee is active in an advisory capacity. In terms of content, it is generally about “documentary heritage” of unique quality - not just books and, above all, not only material that has already been damaged or is specifically endangered. In the database itself, the institutions and the respective collections are essentially described and precisely localized. A list of potential risks is also planned. It was discussed to what extent existing results from national surveys can be integrated and whether and how the PAC centers can provide support.
A large number of events at this year's IFLA Congress were devoted to conservation, many of them also under the responsibility of the Standing Committee.
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