Why was Shivaji Maharaj called Shivaji
The Bombay Natural History Society helped the Museum Trust create the natural history section. The museum's natural history section uses community fans and dioramas, as well as charts and diagrams, to illustrate Indian wildlife, including flamingos, great hornbills, Indian bison, and tigers.
Fauna of the Indian subcontinent
The collection in the Natural History Department of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly Prince of Wales Museum of the West Indies), Mumbai, was donated to the museum by the Bombay Natural Historical Society (BNHS). The collection was given to the museum to raise awareness of the natural flora and fauna of the Indian subcontinent. The museum has an interesting collection of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish such as the white tiger, the Indian rhinoceros, the great Indian bustard, the Kashmiri deer, the Lammergeyer and the great tooth saw Members or during special expeditions. Most of the birds and mammals were discovered by the well-known ornithologist Dr. Salim Ali and the mammalogen Dr. S H. Prater collected during her investigation in India. Many of the species on display in the museum are on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) rare and endangered list and may be critically endangered. This makes the Natural History Gallery of CSMVS a very important center for research and public relations.
Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)
The white tiger is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) that is reported from time to time in the wild in the Indian states. The white Bengal tigers are distinctive because of the color of their fur. The white fur is caused by the lack of the pigment pheomelanin found in Bengal tigers with orange fur. Compared to the Bengal tigers, the white Bengal tigers grow faster and heavier than the orange Bengal tigers.
Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)
The Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary in western Gujarat is the only habitat for the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). The population was critically endangered by 411 individuals in 2010. Due to its small population, it is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN.
Heavy hunting by Indian royalties and colonial personnel resulted in a steady decline in the number of lions in the country. By 1880 there were only a dozen or so lions left in the Junagadh district. By the turn of the century they were confined to the Gir Forest and protected in its private hunting ground by the Junagadh Nawab. In 2015, the lion population was estimated at 523 individuals.
Dhole / Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus)
The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid from Central, South and Southeast Asia. Other English names for this species are Asiatic wild dog and Indian wild dog.
The dhole is a very social animal that lives in large clans of up to 12 individuals without rigid hierarchies of dominance and contains several breeding females. It is a day hunter who prefers to target medium-sized and large ungulates. In tropical forests, the dhole competes with tigers and leopards and targets slightly different types of prey.
It is classified as endangered by the IUCN as populations are declining and it is estimated to be less than 2,500 adults. Factors contributing to this decline are habitat loss, loss of prey, competition with other species, persecution and disease transmission from domestic dogs.
Nilgiri Marten (Martes gwatkinsii)
The Nilgiri marten is the only species of marten in South India. It occurs in the hills of the Nilgiris and parts of the Western Ghats. It is diurnal, and although tree-like, occasionally sinks to the ground. It is reported to prey on birds, small mammals, and insects such as cicadas.
Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata)
The Indian pangolin, thick-tailed pangolin, or scaly anteater (Manis crassicaudata) is a pangolin found in the plains and hills of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan. It is not common anywhere within its range. It has large, overlapping scales on its body that act as armor. It can also curl up in a ball as a self defense against predators such as tigers, lions, and leopards. It is an insect eater that feeds on ants and termites and digs them out of mounds and logs with its long claws, which are as long as the forelegs. It is nocturnal and rests in deep caves during the day. The Indian pangolin is endangered by hunting its flesh and various body parts used in traditional medicine.
Indian hedgehog (Paraechinus micropus)
The Indian hedgehog is a type of hedgehog that is native to India and Pakistan. It lives mainly in sandy desert areas, but can be found in other environments.
Indian hedgehog has a very varied diet consuming insects, frogs, toads, bird eggs, snakes and scorpions. When danger arises, the Indian hedgehog curls up into a ball. The top of the body has spikes to protect against predators.
Gray Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerionus)
The gray slender loris is a species of primate in the family Loridae. It is found in India and Sri Lanka. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical wet forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Like other Loris, they are nocturnal and only emerge from their sleeping caves at dusk. They are mainly insectivorous. In southern India, the dominant breed is often found in forests dominated by acacia and tamarind trees or near cultivated plants. Men hold larger home regions than women.
Nicobar Treeshrew (Tupia nicobarica)
The Nicobar tree root (Tupaia nicobarica) is endemic to the Nicobar Islands, where it inhabits the islands' rainforests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Red panda (Ailurus fulgens)
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also known as the little panda, red bear tomcat, and red cat bear, is a mammal that is native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China. It is tree-like, feeds mainly on bamboo, but also eats eggs, birds, and insects. It is a solitary animal that is mainly active from dusk to dawn and is largely sedentary during the day.
Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica dealbata)
The Indian giant squirrel, (Ratufa indica dealbata), is a subspecies of Ratufa indica, which is considered to be extinct in its population of tropical humid deciduous forests of the Surat Dangs.
The Indian giant squirrel is a tree canopy species that rarely leaves the trees and “needs large, well-branched trees to build nests”. It moves from tree to tree with jumps of up to 6 m (20 ft). Its main predators are the birds of prey and the leopard. The giant squirrel is mostly active in the early morning hours and in the evening and rests at lunchtime.
The Indian giant squirrel lives alone or in pairs. They build large spherical nests out of twigs and leaves and place them on thinner branches where large predators cannot get to them. An individual can build several nests in a small wooded area that will be used as bedrooms, one of which will be used as a nursery.
Indian giant flying squirrel (Petaurista philippensis)
The Indian giant flying squirrel, known as the great brown flying squirrel or the common giant flying squirrel, is a species of rodent in the Sciuridae family. It is found in China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Thailand.
A membrane in front of fore and hind limbs has been developed for flying through trees. Night and tree squirrels are found in arid deciduous and evergreen forests. In addition to natural forests, the animal is recorded by plantations. It is found to occupy treetops and holes. These squirrels are found in tree hollows that are lined with bark, fur, moss, and leaves. They mainly eat bark, tree resins, shoots, leaves, insects and larvae.
Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii)
The Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii) is a species of Old World monkey found in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats in southern India. Females differ from males with a white patch of fur on the inner thigh. It typically lives in troops of nine to ten monkeys. The animal is often invaded into agricultural land. His diet consists of fruits, shoots and leaves. The species is endangered by deforestation and poaching because of its fur and meat, the latter being said to have aphrodisiac properties.
Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock Hoolock)
The Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock Hoolock) is a primate and was found in Assam, Mizoram, Bangladesh, and in Myanmar west of the Chindwin River.
The threats include human intrusion, clearing of forests for tea cultivation, the practice of jhuming (slash and burn), hunting for food and “medicine”, capture for trade and forest destruction.
Mishmi Takin (Budorcas Taxicolor Taxicolor)
The Mishmi Takin (Budorcas Taxicolor Taxicolor) is an endangered goat antelope from India, Myanmar and the People's Republic of China. It is a subspecies of takin.
The Mishmi Takin eats bamboo and willow shoots. It has an oily layer to protect it from the fog.
Are Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi)
The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a widespread goat with a distribution from Europe and Asia Minor to Central Asia and the Middle East. It is the ancestor of the domestic goat. In the wild, goats live in herds of up to 500 individuals; Males are loners. During the furrow, old males drive younger males out of their mother's herds.
Hangul (Cervus canadensis hanglu)
The Kashmiri deer (Cervus canadensis hanglu), also called hangul, is a subspecies of elk native to India. It is found in dense river forests in the high valleys and mountains of the Kashmir Valley and northern Chamba District in Himachal Pradesh. In Kashmir, it's found in Dachigam National Park, where it's protected, but it's more endangered elsewhere. The Kashmiri deer is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN because the population was reduced to 160 adult individuals in 2008.
Himalayan musk deer (musk leucogaster)
The white-bellied musk deer or musk deer (musk leucogaster) is a species of musk deer found in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China. It is classified as endangered by the IUCN for overuse, leading to a likely sharp population decline.
While they lack antlers, a feature that is notable in all musk deer, they have a pair of enlarged and slightly broken canine teeth that grow continuously. These deer have a stocky body type; Their rear legs are also significantly longer and more muscular than their shorter, thinner front legs. Males are wildly territorial and only allow females to enter their range.
The white-bellied musk deer has a waxy substance called musk, which the male reveals from a gland in the abdomen. The deer use this to mark territories and attract women, but the musk is also used in making perfumes and medicines, it is very valuable.
Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is native to the Indian subcontinent. The Indian rhinoceros was once common across the entire Indo-Gangetic Plain, but excessive hunting and agricultural development drastically reduced its range to 11 areas in northern India and southern Nepal.
Rhino hunting became the main reason for the decline of the Indian rhinoceros after protective measures were introduced in the early 20th century.
Indian wild donkey (Equus hemionus khur)
The Indian wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) is a subspecies of the onager native to South Asia.
The Indian wild donkey once reached across western India, south Pakistan, Afghanistan and south-east Iran. Today his final refuge is in the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary in Little Rann of Kutch and the surrounding areas of the Great Rann of Kutch in Gujarat of India. In addition to the disease, other threats include the deterioration of the habitat due to salt activities, the invasion of the Prosopis juliflora shrub, and interference and grazing by the Maldhari.
Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)
The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia from India in the west to Borneo in the east. Asian elephants are the largest living land animals in Asia. Asian elephants are primarily at risk of degradation, fragmentation, and habitat loss and poaching.
Elephants are crepuscular. They are classified as mega herbivores and consume up to 150 kg of plant material per day.
Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus)
The bearded vulture, also known as the lammergeyer, is a bird of prey and the only member of the genus Gypaetus. In July 2014 the IUCN Red List classified this species as near threatened. Their population trend is decreasing.
The bearded vulture primarily eats carrion and lives and breeds on rocks in high mountains in southern Europe, the Caucasus, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Tibet and lays one or two eggs in the middle of winter that hatch in early spring.
Red headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus)
The red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) is found primarily in the Indian subcontinent, with small disjunctive populations in some parts of Southeast Asia.
White vulture (Gyps bengalensis)
The vulture (Gyps bengalensis) is an Old World vulture closely related to the European griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). This species, as well as the Indian vulture and the narrow-billed vulture, have suffered a 99% population decline in India and neighboring countries since the early 1990s. The decline has been largely attributed to poisoning by diclofenac, which is used as a veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and which leaves traces in beef carcasses that cause kidney failure in birds when fed.
Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis)
The steppe eagle, like all eagles, is a bird of prey. It breeds from Romania over the southern Russian and central Asian steppes to Mongolia. The European and Central Asian birds winter in Africa and the eastern birds in India. It lays 1-3 eggs in a stick nest in a tree. In the entire distribution area, open, dry habitats such as dessert, semi-desert, steppe or savannah are preferred.
The steppe eagle feeds mainly on fresh carrion of all species, but kills rodents and other small mammals up to the size of a hare and birds up to the size of partridges. It will also steal food from other birds of prey. Steppe eagles are opportunistic scavengers that put them at risk of diclofenac poisoning.
Great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps)
The great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) or Indian bustard is a bustard found in India and the adjacent regions of Pakistan. A large bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs that give it an ostrich-like appearance, this bird is one of the heaviest of the flying birds. Formerly distributed on the arid plains of the Indian subcontinent, only 250 specimens were estimated in 2011 and the species is endangered by hunting and habitat loss, which consists of large areas of dry grass and scrub. The habitat in which it is most often found is dry and semi-arid grasslands, open land with thorn bushes, tall grass interspersed with cultivation.
During courtship, the male inflates the gular sac. The male also lifts the tail and folds it on his back. The great Indian bustard is omnivorous.
Macqueen bustard (Chlamydotis macqueeni)
MacQueen's bustard can be found in the desert and steppe regions of Asia, east of the Sinai Peninsula, which extends over Kazakhstan to Mongolia. The species feeds all day but is most active in the morning and at dusk. The diet is varied and includes mainly plants and invertebrates, but also vertebrates such as rodents, lizards, small snakes and even young birds. Males attract their partners with an extravagant courtship that they perform in the same place every year.
Great hornbill (Buceros bicornis)
The great hornbill, also known as the great Indian hornbill or the great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family. It is found in South and Southeast Asia. Its impressive size and color have made it important in many tribal cultures and rituals. The great hornbill is long-lived and has lived in captivity for nearly 50 years. It is predominantly frugivorous but is an opportunist and will prey on small mammals, reptiles, and birds. Females are smaller than males and have bluish-white eyes instead of red.
Daffodil Hornbill (Rhyticeros narcondami)
The Narcondam hornbill (Rhyticeros narcondami) is endemic to the Indian island of Narcondam in the Andaman Islands. Males and females have distinctive plumage. The narcondom hornbill has the smallest home of all Asian hornbills.
It feeds on fruits; They also consume invertebrates and occasionally feed on small reptiles. Since they are predominantly fruit-eaters, they play an important role in the seed dispersal of figs and other plant species. The species nests in holes on the trunk or broken branches of large trees. The female remains hidden in the nest cavity for the duration of the egg-laying and rearing period. At this time, the female throws off her flight feathers and therefore cannot fly. The male provides food for the females and chicks.
Little florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The smaller florican (Sypheotides indicus), also known as the likh, is a large bird in the bustard family. It is endemic to the Indian subcontinent, where it is found in tall grasslands, and is best known for the jumping breeding displays made by the males during the monsoon season. These bustards are mainly found in north-west and central India in the summer, but are common throughout India in the winter. The species is critically endangered and has been extinct in some parts of its range such as Pakistan. It is threatened by both hunting and habitat destruction.
Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus)
The largest of six species of flamingo, the flamingo is the most widespread species in the flamingo family. It is found in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and southern Europe.
The bird lives in the mudflats and in shallow coastal lagoons with salt water. The bird churns up the mud with its feet and then sucks water through its beak and filters out small shrimp, seeds, blue-green algae, microscopic organisms and mollusks.
Black-necked stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus)
The black-necked stork is a large, long-necked wader in the stork family. It is a resident species in South and Southeast Asia with a disjoint population in Australia. It lives in wetlands and certain crops such as rice and wheat, where it looks for a variety of animal prey. Adult birds of both sexes have a heavy bill and are patterned in white and glossy black, but the sexes differ in the color of the iris.
Sociable Lapwing (Vanellus gregarius)
The gregarious lapwing or gregarious plover (Vanellus gregarius) is an endangered wader in the lapwing family of birds. This species breeds in open grasslands in Russia and Kazakhstan. These birds migrate south to major wintering areas in Israel, Syria, Eritrea, Sudan, and northwest India, and occasionally Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Oman.
Indian cobra (well well)
The Indian Cobra (Well well) also known as the Spectacled Cobra because of the "Spectacle" mark on the back of the hood. It is found on the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal). It is one of the Big Four Snakes of South Asia, responsible for the majority of human deaths from snakebite in Asia, and its venom is neurotoxic.
Trunk viper (Daboia russelli)
In addition to being one of the four great snakes in India, the Russell Viper is also one of the species responsible for the most snake bite incidents and deaths among all venomous snakes due to many factors including its widespread distribution, generally aggressive demeanor, and frequent occurrence in densely populated areas.
This species is often found in highly urbanized areas and rural settlements, where the attraction is the rodents that come with humans. As a result, those who work outside of these areas are most at risk of being bitten.
Indian chameleon (Chamaeleo zeylanicus)
The Indian chameleon is a species of chameleon found in Sri Lanka, India, and other parts of South Asia. Like other chameleons, this species has a long tongue, feet that are shaped into two-legged classes, a prehensile tail, independent eye movements, and the ability to change skin color. They move slowly with a rocking or swaying motion and are usually tree-like. Oddly enough, they don't choose the background color and may not be able to perceive differences in color. They're usually in shades of green or brown, or with ribbons. They can change color quickly and the main purpose of changing color is to communicate with other chameleons and control body temperature by changing to dark colors to absorb heat.
Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)
The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), also known as the gavial. This fish-eating crocodile is native to the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Gharial is one of the longest of all living crocodiles at up to 6.25 m. With 110 sharp, interlocking teeth in its long, thin snout; it is well adapted to catch fish, its main diet. The male gharial has a distinctive boss at the end of the snout that resembles an earthen pot.
Gharials once inhabited all of the major river systems of the Indian subcontinent, from the Irrawaddy River in the east to the Indus River in the west. Their spread is now limited to only 2% of their previous range. They mainly inhabit flowing rivers with high sandbanks, which they use for sunbathing and building nests.
Star tortoise (Geochelone elegans)
The Indian star tortoise is a species of tortoise found in arid regions and scrub forests in India and Sri Lanka. This species is very popular in the exotic pet trade.
The pattern, although very contrasting, is disturbing and breaks the outline of the turtle as it sits in the shade of grass or vegetation. They are mostly herbivorous and feed on grasses, fallen fruits, flowers and leaves of succulents and occasionally eat carrion. However, they should never be fed meat in captivity.
Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is an endangered sea turtle belonging to the Cheloniidae family. The species has a worldwide distribution with Atlantic and Indo-Pacific subspecies.
While this turtle spends some of its life in the open ocean, it spends more time in shallow lagoons and coral reefs. Human fishing practices threaten populations with extinction. Hawksbill shells were the main source of turtle shell material that was used for decorative purposes. Hawksbill turtles are eaten as a delicacy in some parts of the world. They are very wandering. Their predators are sharks, estuarine crocodiles, octopuses, and some species of pelagic fish.
Giant Tree Frog (Rhacophorus maximus)
Nepal's flying frog, Günther’s treefrog, giant treefrog, is a species of frog in the Rhacophoridae family found in southwestern China (Yunnan, Tibet), northeastern India, Nepal, western Thailand and north Vietnam, and possibly Bangladesh.
Large tooth saw (Pristis microdon)
The large-sized sawfish (Pristis microdon), also known as the freshwater fox, is a sawfish of the Pristidae family that occurs in shallow Indo-West Pacific oceans and also ends up in freshwater. This species reaches a length of up to 7 meters.
The big tooth sawfish is a heavy sawfish with a short, massive saw, wide, sharply tapered, and with 14 to 22 very large teeth on each side - the distance between the last two saw teeth on the sides is less than twice the space between the first both teeth.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (translated: "King Shivaji Museum"), abbreviated CSMVS and formerly the Prince of Wales Museum of the West Indies, is the most important museum in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It was founded in the early years of the 20th century by prominent citizens of Mumbai, with the help of the government, to commemorate the visit of Edward VIII, who was Prince of Wales at the time. It is in the heart of South Mumbai near the Gateway of India. The museum was renamed after Shivaji, the founder of Maratha Empire, in the 1990s or early 2000s.
The building is built in the Indo-Saracen style of architecture and incorporates elements of other architectural styles such as Mughal, Maratha and Jain. The museum building is surrounded by a garden with palm trees and formal flower beds.
The museum houses about 50,000 exhibits of ancient Indian history, as well as objects from abroad, which are mainly divided into three areas: art, archeology, and natural history. The museum houses Indus Civilization artifacts and other relics from ancient India from the times of the Guptas, Mauryas, Chalukyas, and Rashtrakuta.
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