What is the federal system


1. Characterization: Political structural principle, according to which a community should be composed of several communities that coordinate their decisions but preserve their independence (“unity in diversity”).

Federalist Design options are the confederation and the state. A confederation of states is an association of independent states that have common organs to deal with certain matters (e.g. the EU). In contrast to the confederation of states, the federal state is characterized by the fact that a new state is created through the amalgamation of states. The united states do not lose their statehood, however, but instead remain in existence alongside the newly formed state as a member state with their own original state authority.

In the case of a demarcation of the communities according to regional extent and / or functional responsibility, a division of tasks is then made according to Principle of subsidiarity possible, in which the advantages of smaller communities can be combined with those of larger ones (economic theory of federalism; economic theory of the club).


2. The Federal Republic of Germany is a federation (federal state; Art. 20 I GG) with the federal government, states and municipalities as federal levels (the municipalities are constitutionally regarded as components of the state level) and functionally demarcated Parafisci (above all social security agencies); public authorities. Responsibilities of the individual levels as well as the type of cooperation (cooperative federalism) are in principle laid down in the financial constitution, whereby a distinction is made between legislative, administrative and financing or revenue sovereignty.