What falls under research and development

Research and Development (R&D)

1. Term: Search for new knowledge using scientific methods and in a planned form. research is the general acquisition of new knowledge, development their first concrete application and practical implementation. The new knowledge can extend to products as well as (manufacturing) processes and product and process applications. If research lacks a real exploitation aspect, it is basic research. Applied research, on the other hand, is already geared towards specific application possibilities.

A particular form of conception (of products) takes place during construction or construction. In contrast to development, this mostly lacks the feature of novelty, because it is mainly limited to a combined application of known construction principles. In addition, the design always aims only at the design of geometrically precisely defined products.

2. Research and development process: a) Planning: This phase includes:
(1) unambiguousGoal planning: The results must be reflected in project-related specifications and generally in the R&D programs, taking into account the time dimension.
(2) Funding planning: Planning the availability of required resources in terms of equipment to be invested etc. and staff to be released or employed, but also of the budgets to be used, always in terms of volumes, earmarking and time.
(3) Project planning: Planning of the individual projects with regard to their development, their assessment in different stages of maturity and their processes (work, sequence and schedule planning).

b) Organization: Possible starting points for the organization of R&D activities are considerations on the institutionalization of them as autonomous or cross-company joint research or as (commercial) contract research. In addition, internal issues such as the organizational structure in an R&D area and its incorporation into the company hierarchy are clarified.

c) Control: Reports on events, interim results, failures, delays, etc. to a cost and budget monitoring system that differentiates according to projects and, if necessary, anticipates accounting periods, in order to be able to revise the planning approaches in good time if necessary or otherwise intervene in the execution of the R&D projects to regulate.

3. Problems: a) When the knowledge acquired in R&D is transferred from the R&D area or the construction area to your own production or to the third-party production of licensees, problems arise with Technology transfers. This is the transmission of conceptually obtained information to the information users who are mostly arrested by other thought patterns.

b) The difficulties of one Assessment of the efficiency of R&D result largely from the special features of the services that take place here:
(1) The Uniqueness, with each of which a product is to be created.
(2) Multiples Uncertainties in terms of success and costs that will become effective on the way there.
(3) Knowledge, intellect and creativity of the R&D staff shape the R&D processes more than the otherwise distinctive repetitive activities.

See also technical progress, innovation, technology management.