Muslims are also part of the Dravidians
Pakistan - general
Politics and history
The beginnings of Pakistan go back to the year 3000 BC, when the peoples of the Indus Valley united to form states. Later, Dravidians invaded the area followed by Indo-European peoples, settled in the region and founded one of the most highly developed civilizations of ancient times.
Around the 6th century BC, the region fell to Persia and in the middle of the 4th century BC, the Maurya Empire emerged, under which the area developed greatly.
After its decline around 180 BC, the region was conquered by different peoples one after the other until Mohammed Ibn Qasim took over in the 7th century AD, and the country was conquered by various Islamic dynasties, and from the end of the 12th century by the Turks and from the 16th century onwards by the Mongols.
After the fall of the Mongol Empire in the 18th century, small Islamic and Hindu states emerged whose weakness made it easier for British forces to conquer the Indian subcontinent and neighboring regions.
The area was united under the British Crown under the name India and trading offices were established.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Islamic leaders in India sought political unification independently of the Hindus, which the British permitted and so in 1909 the Muslim League was founded.
In the 30s of the 20th century the idea of a separate Pakistani state emerged, which the Muslim League pursued with greater vehemence after India gained independence from Great Britain in 1947.
In the face of the tensions that arose and Muslim protests, the Hindu leaders of India finally accepted Pakistan's secession.
The following decades were marked by political instability and conflict that led to Pakistan's transformation into an Islamic republic and the independence of Bangladesh, the new official name of East Pakistan, in 1971.
In 1977 General Zia took over political power after a coup against President Bhutto and promoted the Islamization of the country. In 1988, after Zia's death in an alleged aircraft accident, general elections were held, from which the Pakistan People's Party and its candidate Benazir Bhutto emerged victorious. She became the first female prime minister of an Islamic country.
In 1990, Bhutto was dismissed from office and held elections on suspicion of nepotism and corruption. They were won by the Pakistani Muslim League candidate Mian Nawaz Sharif, who was elected Prime Minister.
The following years were politically turbulent and were marked by repeated dismissals of prime ministers and new elections as well as a failed coup attempt by the military in 1995.
In 1997 Sharif was re-elected and implemented some political reforms, including the introduction of Sharia (Islamic legal code) as the supreme law of the state.
In 1999, Pervez overthrew Musharraf Sharif and made himself president. His term of office was extended by a referendum in April 2002 for a further five years.
Pakistan's economy is largely based on agriculture, the economy has suffered from constant armed conflict, political unrest, unfavorable climatic conditions, rapid population growth and the burden of three million Afghan refugees.
In 2001 a new economic policy was introduced based on reducing the budget deficit and national debt. Structural reforms aimed at privatizing the economy and coordinating tax and financial policies have also been launched. The inflation rate was 2.6% in 2001/2002, the unemployment rate reached 9.6%.
Pakistan is home to Buddhist monuments, Hindu temples, Islamic palaces and mansions of the British and Mughals. The visual arts are dominated by Graeco-Buddhist friezes and objets d'art.
Religious chants and folk culture dances are traditionally important, with the dances standing out for their sensuality and strength.
The most important writer in the country is Dr. Mohammad Iqbal, he wrote a number of books on poetry and philosophy and also played an important role in the creation of the Pakistani state.
Pakistan is mainly characterized by a hot and dry climate, with desert-like conditions prevailing in many parts of the country. Along the western border and in the northern parts of the country there are semi-arid steppe areas and deserts.
In the small northeastern part of the country, the hilly landscape at the foot of the Himalayas, there is a subtropical climate with heavy rainfall in summer.
The north of the country is characterized by an alpine climate with different characteristics depending on the altitude.
In the lowlands of the Indus, temperatures fluctuate between 32 and 49 ° C in summer; the winter temperatures are around 13 ° C on average.
The landscape of Pakistan is very mountainous and can be divided into six geographical regions: the plain to the east of the Indus River, which is traversed from north to south; the highlands of Balochistan in the southwest of the country; the Suleiman Mountains in the west; the coastal plain of the south; the mountain range of the Himalayas in the north and the Tharr Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, in the far east of the country.
The highest mountain in the country is the K2-Godwin Austen at 8,607 meters, the most important river is the Indus, which flows into the Arabian Sea.
The vegetation of Pakistan varies depending on the altitude. Alpine vegetation can be found on the slopes of the high mountains, while forests predominate in lower elevations.
Typical tree species include cedar, pine, evergreen oak and spruce. Pakistan is rich in wildlife, the most common species being wild boar, red deer and waterfowl.
In the steppes jackals, foxes, wild cats, snakes and various types of rodents can be found, in the Indus delta there are also crocodiles. Bears, leopards, ibexes, wild sheep and snow leopards find suitable habitats in the mountains.
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